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Kapal perang Royal Sovereign Class berbaris di depan (1 dari 2)

Kapal perang Royal Sovereign Class berbaris di depan (1 dari 2)


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Kapal perang Royal Sovereign Class berbaris di depan (1 dari 2)


Tiga kapal perang kelas Royal Sovereign terlihat berbaris di depan dari geladak kapal perang lain.


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Apakah Saatnya Membawa Kembali Kapal Perang?

Bagaimana jika Amerika memiliki penerus sejati kapal perang klasik, yang dirancang untuk menangani dan menyerap hukuman?

Apakah sudah waktunya untuk membawa kembali kapal perang?

Selama beberapa dekade, arsitek angkatan laut telah berkonsentrasi pada pembangunan kapal yang, menurut standar Perang Dunia, sangat rapuh. Kapal-kapal ini dapat memberikan hukuman pada rentang yang jauh lebih besar daripada rekan-rekan mereka di awal abad ke-20, tetapi mereka tidak dapat menerima pukulan. Apakah sudah waktunya untuk mempertimbangkan kembali strategi ini, dan sekali lagi membangun kapal yang dilindungi? Artikel ini membahas bagaimana tren ini muncul, dan apa yang mungkin berubah di masa depan.

Mengapa Kami Membangun Kapal Besar

Label "kapal perang" muncul dari formulasi "kapal garis" yang lebih tua, dalam arti bahwa kapal-kapal angkatan laut terbesar berpartisipasi dalam formasi "garis pertempuran" yang memungkinkan mereka untuk membawa sisi lebarnya ke garis yang berlawanan. Setelah pengembangan kapal perang yang ketat, "kapal perang" menyimpang dari kapal penjelajah lapis baja berdasarkan harapan penggunaan "kapal perang" diharapkan untuk melawan "kapal perang" musuh. Bentuk kapal perang modern menetap sekitar tahun 1890, dengan kelas Penguasa Kerajaan Inggris. Kapal-kapal ini berbobot sekitar 15.000 ton, dengan dua senjata berat masing-masing di menara depan dan belakang, dan baju besi baja. Angkatan laut lainnya di dunia mengadopsi parameter desain dasar ini, yang menyediakan kapal yang dapat menangani dan menerima hukuman. Proses memastikan kelangsungan hidup disederhanakan, di kapal perang awal ini, dengan prediktabilitas ancaman. Vektor serangan yang paling mungkin pada akhir 1890-an berasal dari artileri angkatan laut besar yang dibawa oleh kapal lain, dan akibatnya, skema perlindungan dapat berkonsentrasi pada ancaman itu.

Keterbatasan pengendalian tembakan berarti bahwa tingkat kematian tidak meningkat banyak dengan ukuran HMS Lord Nelson, yang ditetapkan 15 tahun kemudian, hanya memindahkan 2.000 ton lebih banyak. Namun, pada lambung berukuran kira-kira sama, HMS Dreadnought memanfaatkan sejumlah inovasi yang dikembangkan pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, dan dengan sepuluh senjata berat menjadi platform yang jauh lebih mematikan dengan biaya yang hampir sama dengan kapal-kapal sebelumnya. Akibatnya, kemampuan bertahan kapal perang yang lebih kecil turun secara substansial, bahkan terhadap artileri angkatan laut.

Sejak saat itu, tingkat kematian dan kemampuan bertahan hidup meningkat secara dramatis dengan ukuran kapal, dan angkatan laut dunia meresponsnya. Pada tahun 1915, kapal perang baris pertama Angkatan Laut Kerajaan akan berbobot 27.000 ton pada tahun 1920, kapal perang terbesar di dunia (HMS Hood) berbobot 45.000 ton. Pada tahun 1921 perjanjian internasional akan membatasi ukuran kapal perang, meskipun Jerman dan Jepang secara khusus membayangkan kapal perang dengan proporsi yang mengejutkan.

Mengapa Kapal Besar Keluar dari Gaya

Dengan munculnya era kekuatan udara (dan kekuatan misil), ukuran tidak lagi secara dramatis meningkatkan tingkat kematian kapal perang permukaan. Pada saat yang sama, proliferasi ancaman membuat memastikan kelangsungan hidup lebih sulit. Kapal perang besar dari Perang Dunia Kedua tidak dapat bertahan dari serangan udara dan kapal selam bersama, dan tidak dapat menyerang balik pada jarak yang cukup untuk membenarkan persenjataan utama mereka. Kecuali kapal induk, di mana tingkat kematian masih meningkat seiring bertambahnya ukuran, arsitektur angkatan laut berubah menjadi mungil. Kapal permukaan utama Angkatan Laut AS (USN) hari ini menggantikan kurang dari seperempat kapal perang Perang Dunia II.

Kapal-kapal pasca-Perang Dunia II juga, secara umum, membuang gagasan tentang baju besi sebagai sarana untuk memastikan kemampuan bertahan hidup. Masih ada banyak perdebatan tentang bagaimana sabuk pengaman kapal perang tradisional (samping) dapat menahan rudal jelajah. Rudal jelajah umumnya memiliki daya tembus yang lebih kecil daripada artileri angkatan laut terbesar, meskipun mereka memiliki keunggulan lain. Armor dek terbukti menjadi masalah yang lebih serius, dan tuntutan untuk memastikan kemampuan bertahan dari bom, rudal jelajah pop-up, dan (baru-baru ini) rudal balistik dengan cepat melampaui peningkatan daya mematikan dari kapal besar yang berlapis baja. Dan mungkin yang paling penting, tidak ada yang menemukan cara untuk menghilangkan (sebagai lawan untuk memperbaiki) masalah serangan bawah air torpedo terus menimbulkan ancaman mematikan bahkan untuk kapal perang lapis baja yang paling berat sekalipun.

Ini bukan untuk mengatakan bahwa orang belum mencoba. Beberapa angkatan laut telah bermain dengan gagasan kapal perang permukaan besar sejak akhir Perang Dunia II. Angkatan Laut Kerajaan mempertimbangkan untuk mendesain ulang dan menyelesaikan setidaknya satu anggota kelas Lion, yang ditinggalkan pada tahun 1939. Studi akhirnya menentukan bahwa tingkat pelindung dek yang diperlukan untuk melindungi kapal dari bom akan terbukti menjadi penghalang. Soviet mempertahankan rencana untuk membangun kapal perang tradisional yang membawa senjata ke tahun 1950-an ketika kematian Stalin mengakhiri fantasi semacam itu. Prancis menyelesaikan Jean Bart pada tahun 1952 dan menjadikannya sebagai bagian dari komisi hingga tahun 1960-an sebagai kapal pelatihan dan akomodasi.

Gelombang baru dimulai pada 1970-an ketika Uni Soviet memulai pembangunan kapal penjelajah rudal berat kelas Kirov, yang dengan cepat mengambil nama "kapal penjelajah". USN menanggapi, sebagian, dengan perbaikan empat kapal perang kelas Iowa, yang memperoleh rudal jarak jauh tetapi tetap beroperasi hanya beberapa tahun.

Baru-baru ini, Rusia, Amerika Serikat, dan China semuanya telah mempertimbangkan pembangunan kapal perang permukaan yang besar. Rusia secara berkala berjanji untuk membangun Kirovs baru, sebuah klaim yang sama seriusnya dengan saran bahwa Rusia akan membangun pembom strategis Tu-160 baru. Salah satu usulan program CG(X) melibatkan kapal perang bertenaga nuklir mendekati 25.000 ton. Media telah memperlakukan kapal penjelajah Tipe 055 China sebagai kapal perang super serupa, tetapi laporan sekarang menunjukkan bahwa kapal tersebut akan berbobot sekitar 12000-14000 ton, agak lebih kecil dari kapal perusak kelas Zumwalt AS.

Apa yang Berubah?

Kapal besar masih memiliki beberapa keunggulan mematikan. Misalnya, kapal yang lebih besar dapat membawa magasin rudal yang lebih besar, yang dapat mereka gunakan untuk tujuan ofensif dan defensif. Kemajuan teknologi senjata (seperti Sistem Senjata Canggih 155mm yang akan dipasang pada perusak kelas Zumwalt) berarti artileri angkatan laut yang besar dapat menyerang lebih jauh dan lebih akurat daripada sebelumnya.

Tetapi kemajuan yang paling penting mungkin datang dalam kemampuan bertahan hidup. Alasan terbesar untuk membangun kapal besar mungkin adalah janji pembangkit listrik. Inovasi paling menarik dalam teknologi angkatan laut melibatkan sensor, teknologi tak berawak, laser, dan railgun, yang sebagian besar membutuhkan daya. Kapal yang lebih besar dapat menghasilkan lebih banyak tenaga, meningkatkan tidak hanya daya mematikannya (senjata rel, sensor) tetapi juga kemampuan bertahannya (laser anti-rudal, teknologi sensor pertahanan, sistem pertahanan jarak dekat). Majalah rudal yang dapat dibawa oleh kapal besar memungkinkan mereka untuk menyatukan elemen-elemen ini dan daya mematikan dan kemampuan bertahan lebih baik daripada rekan-rekan mereka yang lebih kecil.

Bagaimana dengan penerus sejati kapal perang klasik, yang dirancang untuk menangani dan menyerap hukuman? Kemajuan dalam desain material tentu saja meningkatkan kemampuan sistem militer lainnya (terutama tank) untuk bertahan dari hukuman, dan upaya serius untuk membuat kapal lapis baja tidak diragukan lagi akan menghasilkan kapal yang terlindungi dengan baik. Masalahnya adalah bahwa sistem pasif perlu melindungi kapal dari berbagai serangan yang berbeda, termasuk rudal jelajah, torpedo, rudal balistik, dan senjata jarak jauh. Menjaga kapal terlindungi dengan baik dari ancaman ini, yang semuanya dapat diantisipasi dalam situasi anti-akses/penolakan area (A2/AD), kemungkinan akan terbukti mahal. Perlu juga diperhatikan bahwa sementara kapal perang dahulu kala dapat terus berlayar dan bertempur meskipun mengalami kerusakan parah pada berbagai komponennya, kapal perang modern membawa teknologi yang jauh lebih sensitif dan terintegrasi secara mendalam, sistem yang mungkin bereaksi buruk terhadap serangan rudal balistik yang dapat bertahan.

Tembakan Perpisahan

Kapal besar dengan baju besi berat tidak mungkin memecahkan dilema A2/AD. Namun, kapal besar dengan sistem komponen pertahanan yang efektif, dikombinasikan dengan sejumlah besar sistem ofensif yang sangat mematikan, dapat sangat membantu dalam mengalahkan sistem sistem anti-akses. Dalam hal ini, "kapal perang" bisa kembali, meskipun akan memainkan peran lebih seperti monitor klasik (dimaksudkan untuk melawan sistem berbasis pantai) daripada garis-kapal perang. Dan "kapal perang" baru ini akan bertahan lebih sedikit karena kemampuan mereka untuk menyerap serangan, daripada menghindari serangan sama sekali.

Robert Farley adalah asisten profesor di Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce di University of Kentucky. Karyanya meliputi doktrin militer, keamanan nasional, dan urusan maritim. Dia ngeblog di Pengacara, Senjata, dan Uang dan Penyebaran informasi dan Diplomat. Ikuti dia di Twitter:@drfarls.


Menara Kapal Perang Inggris

Kelas pasca-Dreadnought Angkatan Laut Kerajaan yang berurutan pada dasarnya adalah versi perbaikan dari kapal perang perintis itu. Kemajuan signifikan berikutnya datang dengan Orion (Orion, Conqueror, Monarch, dan Thunderer, dibangun antara 1909 dan 1912). Mereka adalah perbaikan dari desain sebelumnya dan segera disebut kapal penempur super. Meriam 13,5 inci baru mereka memberikan daya tembak yang jauh lebih tinggi untuk tambahan kecil dalam berat dan rentang ukuran ditingkatkan menjadi 24.000 yard yang spektakuler. Baterai utama Orions’ diatur pada pola yang dipelopori oleh Angkatan Laut AS yang akan berlaku sampai kapal perang terakhir dirancang: Semua menara dipasang di garis tengah, dan menara depan dan belakang ditumpangkan satu di atas yang lain, luas peningkatan pada menara sayap RN Jerman dan sebelumnya. Armor Orion’ diperpanjang hingga ke dek utama, menghilangkan kelemahan utama dari kelas kapal penempur awal. Namun, mereka menderita kekurangan balok yang sama, yang memberikan perlindungan bawah air yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan kapal-kapal Jerman. Argumen Inggris yang tidak masuk akal adalah bahwa balok yang lebih besar membuat kapal lebih goyah dan mengurangi kecepatan. Orion, sebagaimana dicatat, juga merupakan kapal penempur RN terakhir yang menempatkan platform penembakan mereka tepat di belakang corong depan.

Kemajuan besar berikutnya dalam desain kapal perang terlihat pada lima Ratu Elizabeth yang mengesankan (Ratu Elizabeth, Valiant, Barham, Malaya, dan Warspite, selesai pada tahun 1915-1916). Jauh di depan apa pun yang akan dihasilkan Angkatan Laut Jerman, mereka dirancang dengan percaya diri untuk melampaui armada musuh yang mundur. Ratu Elizabeth adalah kapal perang berbahan bakar minyak besar pertama di dunia. Angkatan Laut tahu betul bahwa Jerman tidak mungkin melakukan pembakaran minyak sepenuhnya, karena Jerman, tidak seperti Inggris, dianggap kekurangan pasokan minyak yang terjamin di masa perang. (Tentu saja, dengan kecenderungan mereka untuk menginvasi negara lain, Jerman mungkin diharapkan untuk mengambil alih ladang minyak Rumania, yang kemudian mereka lakukan dalam Perang Dunia I.) Selain itu, minyak memberikan efisiensi termal yang jauh lebih besar, melepaskan banyak lebih sedikit asap, dan membebaskan semua personel dari belenggu pembakaran batubara yang kotor dan memakan waktu. Meminyaki hanyalah masalah kehabisan selang dan membuka katup. Jadi Inggris Raya, yang tidak memiliki sumber daya minyak dalam negerinya sendiri, telah menyandera produsen minyak dunia.

Ratu Elizabeth juga yang pertama memasang senjata baterai utama 15 inci, dan kelima unit menembakkan senjata itu ke Jutland. Mereka dan dua unit dari kelas Revenge berikut (Revenge, Royal Oak, Ramillies, Resolution, dan Royal Sovereign, selesai 1916-1917) adalah kelas kapal perang RN terakhir yang bertempur dalam Perang Dunia I dan, dengan Elizabeth, adalah satu-satunya ibu kota kapal dari kekuatan angkatan laut mana pun untuk menggunakan senjata utama mereka melawan kapal perang musuh di kedua perang dunia. (Tiga unit lagi, Renown, Repulse, dan Resistance, ditangguhkan, kemudian dibatalkan pada tahun 1914 saat pecahnya perang.)

Kapal penempur dengan mudah menjadi senjata paling mahal dalam Perang Dunia I. Sebaliknya, alat perang paling mahal dari Perang Dunia II (1939-1945) adalah pesawat pengebom berat B-29 Superfortress Angkatan Udara AS. Jelas, status kapal perang telah sangat terdepresiasi sejak tahun 1918 tidak satu kapal perang diletakkan dan diselesaikan selama Perang Dunia II.

Namun secara paradoks, ada lebih banyak bentrokan kapal perang-ke-kapal perang dalam Perang Dunia II daripada di Perang Dunia I, meskipun, seperti dalam Perang Dunia I, hanya akan ada satu aksi armada kapal perang yang besar. Namun terlepas dari peran mereka yang berkurang dalam Perang Dunia II, jumlah kapal perang yang kira-kira sama akan hilang seperti dalam Perang Dunia I (23 lawan 25, termasuk self-scuttling).

Seperti kekuatan angkatan laut lainnya, semua berorientasi pada kapal perang, Royal Navy memasuki Perang Dunia II dengan koleksi kapal perang era Perang Dunia I, dimodernisasi dan tidak dimodernisasi, dan dengan kapal perang baru di jalan. Itu juga memiliki satu-satunya kapal perang di angkatan laut mana pun yang dirancang dan diselesaikan selama tahun 1920-an, Nelson dan Rodney. Kecuali kelas Nelson, Angkatan Laut Kerajaan selama Perang Dunia II akan kehilangan satu masing-masing dari kelas kapal perang lainnya, semuanya kehilangan tiga kapal perang: Royal Oak, Prince of Wales, dan Barham. Kapal perang Angkatan Laut Kerajaan tertua yang bertugas di Perang Dunia II adalah lima Ratu Elizabeth. Dari mereka, Valiant, Warspite, dan Ratu Elizabeth telah diberi rekonstruksi paling lengkap dari semua kapal perang RN. Barham yang tidak dimodernisasi akan hilang karena torpedo kapal selam, membawa 862 awak, pada tahun 1941. Kemudian datang lima Penguasa Kerajaan, di mana Royal Oak hilang di Scapa Flow, dengan 786 tewas, pada tahun 1939, lagi-lagi ke torpedo kapal selam Jerman. Kapal perang yang belakangan tetapi lebih murah ini tidak dihargai setinggi kapal Ratu Elizabeth, mungkin karena mereka lebih lambat dan tidak mengalami modernisasi yang hampir sama ekstensif. Bahkan, Angkatan Laut secara serius mempertimbangkan pengeluaran dua kelas ini sebagai kapal blokade di lepas pantai Jerman. Satu, Royal Sovereign, dipinjamkan ke Armada Merah untuk durasi perang.

Kapal perang RN terbaru dari Perang Dunia II adalah kelas King George V (King George V, Prince of Wales, Duke of York, Anson, dan Howe, jangan disamakan dengan kelas King George V tahun 1911-1912). Sekali lagi, satu unit dari kelas ini, Prince of Wales, hilang selama perang, kali ini karena serangan udara oleh Jepang pada bulan Desember 1941. Kelas itu dikritik habis-habisan karena meriam utama 14 incinya. Keputusan mundur ini (bagaimanapun juga, Nelson dan Rodney yang jauh lebih tua membanggakan senjata 16 inci) dibuat untuk menyelesaikan setidaknya dua unit pertama dari kelas itu pada tahun 1940, di mana konflik tanggal dengan Jerman diperkirakan terjadi. Karena itu, hanya King George V yang siap digunakan pada tahun 1940. Seperti kelas Nelson, kelas King George V memiliki masalah pemasangan maingun yang signifikan. Meskipun demikian, Angkatan Laut Kerajaan umumnya merasa bahwa kelas tersebut memberikan nilai yang baik untuk uangnya.

Kelas lanjutan, Lions, dirancang untuk memasang meriam 16 inci, tetapi kenyataan Perang Dunia II memastikan bahwa kapal perang ini tidak bisa melewati tahap peletakan, jika memang demikian. Meski begitu, hingga akhir 1943-1944, sebenarnya ada minat singkat untuk menyelesaikan Lions, yang tidak membuahkan hasil. Dua tahun setelah Perang Dunia II, Inggris Raya meletakkan HMS Vanguard sebagai tunggangan untuk meriam 15 inci yang tidak pernah dipasang dari kapal penjelajah pertempuran raksasa yang aneh, Glorious and Courageous, yang telah lama diubah menjadi kapal induk. Vanguard pada dasarnya adalah ide Winston Churchill (perdana menteri selalu memiliki titik lemah untuk kapal perang) dan seharusnya memperkuat armada RN di Singapura. Namun jauh sebelum Vanguard diluncurkan pada tahun 1944, benteng Singapura telah jatuh secara memalukan, dan Prince of Wales (bersama dengan kapal penjelajah tempur Repulse) telah kalah dari kekuatan udara Jepang di lepas pantai Malaya. Pekerjaan berjalan sangat lambat selama perang di Vanguard, kapal perang Inggris terbesar dan terakhir yang pernah dibangun, tidak selesai sampai tahun 1946, tidak pernah melepaskan tembakan dalam kemarahan, dan dibatalkan pada tahun 1960.

Pembatalan Lions dan lambatnya pembangunan Vanguard tidak boleh dianggap sebagai indikasi bahwa Royal Navy telah menyerah sepenuhnya pada kapal perang. Luar biasa, First Sea Lord (yaitu, perwira RN berpangkat tertinggi), Laksamana Andrew Cunningham, pada Mei 1944, jauh setelah Taranto, Pearl Harbor, dan hilangnya Prince of Wales dan Repulse, berpendapat bahwa, untuk Angkatan Laut Kerajaan pascaperang , “dasar kekuatan armada ada di kapal perang dan tidak ada perkembangan ilmiah yang terlihat yang mungkin membuat mereka usang” (dikutip dalam Eliot A. Cohen, Komando Tertinggi: Prajurit, Negarawan, dan Kepemimpinan di Masa Perang, New York : The Free Press, 2002, hlm. 121-122). Laksamana Cunningham bukanlah ahli angkatan laut teoretis, tetapi mungkin laksamana terbaik yang dihasilkan Angkatan Laut Kerajaan selama Perang Dunia II. Namun pada saat Cunningham membuat proyeksi yang menyedihkan, Angkatan Laut Kerajaan telah menghentikan semua konstruksi kapal perang kecuali untuk pekerjaan santainya di Vanguard setelah Perang Dunia II, mereka tidak akan membuang waktu untuk menghancurkan semua kapal perangnya yang masih hidup (kecuali Vanguard).

LAPORAN ACARA YANG TERJADI DI MENARA 14in

A – Acara sebelum Tindakan Pertama

Perintah untuk memuat kandang diberikan pada sore hari. Selama pemuatan, cacat berikut berkembang: -

Kandang pemuatan senjata No. 2: Pintu flash depan tidak dapat dibuka sepenuhnya dari kompartemen transverser dan kandang tidak dapat dimuat. Pemeriksaan menunjukkan bahwa selongsong depan telah tergores parah karena dipukul oleh lug yang membawa roller pemandu pada kepala pendorong pemuatan senjata ketika yang terakhir membuat pukulan “tarik”.

Ini dibersihkan dengan mengajukan dan kandang pemuatan senjata lainnya diperiksa untuk cacat yang sama. Sedikit burring ditemukan dalam beberapa kasus dan dihilangkan.

Senjata No. 1: Pada serudukan shell untuk kedua kalinya setelah perintah “Load”, penahan shell pada level ring shell macet dan tidak dapat dibebaskan sebelum aksi pertama.

Saat mengepul dengan kecepatan tinggi, sejumlah besar air laut masuk ke menara “A” di sekitar lubang meriam dan melalui sambungan atap rumah meriam. Menjadi perlu untuk memasang layar kanvas di ruang transverser dan memasang kompartemen.

No. 2 kerekan amunisi sentral: Arrestor pada level cincin cangkang tidak akan mundur setelah menabrak cangkang. Tidak mungkin melepas ini pada tempatnya pada pemasangan Mark II, dan penahannya telah dilepas sepenuhnya. Pin sumbu pinion yang menggerakkan ban dalam dari arrestor telah disita. Tampaknya tidak ada cara yang efektif untuk melumasi pin ini. Pin dibor dan dilepas dan arrestor dipasang kembali. Akan tetapi, tidak mungkin untuk mengganti arester sebelum stasiun aksi dipesan, karena pada tahap ini terjadi cacat pada baki engsel dari ruang cangkang depan seperti yang dijelaskan di bawah ini. Cacat yang terakhir ini segera diambil untuk membebaskan cincin cangkang yang berputar dan diselesaikan beberapa menit setelah stasiun aksi. Kemudian dianggap tidak disarankan untuk melanjutkan dengan mengganti arester.

Baki engsel di ruang cangkang depan mengotori baut pengunci pada cincin cangkang yang berputar: kedua baki ditekuk.

Selama jam-jam awal tekanan hidrolik gagal pada kontrol kapal cincin shell berputar di menara “B”. Hal ini disebabkan suplai tekanan ke turret dari sisi kanan ring main diisolasi. Kontrol kapal cincin cangkang berputar diumpankan dari sisi kanan saja, dan katup satu arah pada tekanan utama yang berdekatan dengan poros tengah mencegah tekanan diumpankan ke sisi kanan dan kontrol kapal cincin cangkang berputar dari sisi port di sisi kanan. peristiwa yang pertama diisolasi dari ring utama. Kondisi serupa terjadi pada sisi port “A” dan sisi kanan “Y”. Dianggap penting bahwa sambungan silang dipasang di ruang penanganan cangkang dengan dua katup non-balik sehingga kontrol kapal cincin cangkang yang berputar dapat disuplai dari kedua sisi ring utama.

B – Acara selama Aksi Pertama

Cacat berikut berkembang di menara “A”:-

Pada beberapa kesempatan rammer ring shell mengotori braket pada baki engsel untuk interlock No. 11. Shell tidak dapat ditabrak sampai bantalan turret diganti. Ini juga terjadi di “Y” tetapi tidak mencegah serudukan.

Pistol nomor 1 hanya menembakkan satu salvo, karena peristiwa yang dijelaskan di A (i).

Setelah salvo kedua, interlock No. 24A gagal pada ring rammer shell No. Itu tersandung setelah penundaan singkat dan kemudian dibantu dengan tangan.

Sekitar setengah jalan melalui penembakan, penyadap yang mengoperasikan gigi pelepas penahan cincin cangkang pada dorongan kuat-kuat No. 4 gagal melepaskan penahan. Pemeriksaan selanjutnya menunjukkan bahwa poros yang membawa tuas yang mengoperasikan tappet ini telah terpelintir. Dorongan kuat-kuat itu terus beraksi dengan memberikan pukulan keras pada tappet pada setiap pukulan.

Tak lama setelah ini, cacat lebih lanjut terjadi pada dorongan kuat-kuat ruang shell No 4. Saat ditarik sepenuhnya, dorongan kuat-kuat gagal untuk menghapus interlock No. 7 dan cincin tidak dapat dikunci. Hal ini diatasi dengan mengoperasikan roda gigi dengan palang jepit pada setiap langkah.

Selama pemasangan, kondisi di ruang penanganan cangkang “A” sangat buruk, air mengalir dari bagian atas pemasangan. Hanya satu saluran yang dipasang dan menjadi tersumbat sehingga air menumpuk dan hanyut dari sisi ke sisi saat kapal berguling. Aliran di atas dan banjir di bawah membasahi mesin dan menyebabkan ketidaknyamanan bagi personel. Lebih banyak saluran air harus dipasang di ruang penanganan cangkang dan pertimbangan diberikan pada sistem tangkapan air yang dikombinasikan dengan drainase yang lebih baik di bagian atas struktur putar. Setiap upaya sedang dilakukan untuk meningkatkan sistem tekanan dan upaya lebih lanjut akan dilakukan segera setelah ada peluang untuk memperbaiki pelapukan mantel, tetapi sejumlah kebocoran tidak dapat dihindari.

Cacat berikut terjadi di menara “Y”:-

Kerekan amunisi sentral Salvo 11 – No. 3 diangkat dengan cangkang tetapi tidak ada interlock cordite No. 25 yang gagal mencegah hal ini. Interlock berfungsi dengan benar sebelum pertunangan. Belum ada kesempatan untuk menyelidiki ini. Dilaporkan juga bahwa alasan tidak ada cordite yang ditabrak adalah karena indikator di ruang penanganan cordite tidak menunjukkan bahwa kandang telah diangkat setelah pukulan ramming sebelumnya. Hal ini menyebabkan pistol kehilangan tembakan 15 sampai 20.

Salvo 12 – Pintu flash depan kandang pemuatan senjata No. 2 gagal dibuka dan kandang tidak dapat dimuat. Pintu flash pada tabung transfer bekerja dengan benar dan penyelidikan menunjukkan bahwa penyesuaian diperlukan pada batang vertikal yang mengoperasikan tuas telapak tangan yang membuka pintu kandang pemuatan senjata. Untuk membuat penyesuaian ini, benang tiga perempat inci harus dipotong pada batang. Cacat ini terjadi setelah pengikatan putus dan selesai pada tahun 1300. Tampaknya roda gigi operasi telah tegang, mungkin oleh benda asing di selubung pintu flash yang membuat pintu rapat. Pintu-pintu itu bebas ketika dicoba selama melakukan perbaikan. Hal ini menyebabkan pistol meleset dari salvo 14 dan seterusnya.

Salvo 20 – Karena pergerakan kapal, sebuah cangkang meluncur keluar dari ruang cangkang pelabuhan dan mengotori cincin cangkang yang berputar sementara yang terakhir terkunci di bagasi dan menara sedang berlatih. Baki engsel sangat tertekuk, membuat cincin cangkang yang berputar tidak berfungsi. Baki telah dilepas, tetapi pada pengujian cincin ditemukan bahwa baki engsel No. 3 dan 4 dari ruang cangkang kanan juga telah tertekuk dan mengotori cincin. Penyebab hal ini belum diketahui. Baki-baki telah dilepas dan karena aksi telah berhenti pada saat ini, baki No. 4 didandani dan diganti. Cincin itu tidak berfungsi sampai 0825.

C – Acara setelah Tindakan Pertama

Pada siang hari di turret “A”, penahan selongsong amunisi sentral No. 1 didorong kembali dengan maksud untuk melanjutkan tanpanya dengan menabrakkan secara hati-hati. Pistol dan sangkarnya kemudian dimuat, tetapi karena gerakan kapal, peluru di sangkar kerekan amunisi pusat meluncur ke depan sampai hidungnya memasuki arestor, membuat kerekan itu tidak berfungsi lagi. Pemeriksaan selanjutnya menunjukkan bahwa roda gigi anti-surging di dalam sangkar ini kaku dan akibatnya tidak muncul kembali dengan sendirinya setelah menabrak traverser.

D – Peristiwa selama Aksi Kedua

Pistol No. 1 hanya menembakkan dua salvo karena kerekan amunisi pusat tidak berfungsi seperti yang dijelaskan di atas dalam C, paragraf 1. Pada salvo 9, penahan cangkang kerekan amunisi sentral No. 3 macet.

E – Acara setelah Tindakan Kedua

No. 3 penahan cangkang kerekan amunisi sentral telah dilepas lengkap dari kerekan. Waktu tidak mengizinkannya dilucuti dan diperbaiki, tetapi itu dimaksudkan untuk menggunakan kerekan tanpa itu. Pistol dan kandang dimuat dengan cara ini.

Peluru Salvo – Pertama menabrak kandang kerekan amunisi sentral No.3. Dalam upaya untuk memperbaiki ini, sebuah ram ganda dibuat, membuat cincin cangkang tidak berfungsi. Peluru kedua ditarik kembali dengan tekel, membersihkan ring. Dasar cangkang di dalam sangkar kerekan amunisi pusat macet di tepi atas bukaan di kerekan. Ini tidak dapat diselesaikan karena tuas kontrol kerekan amunisi sentral tidak diturunkan. Setelah banyak pengupasan, masalahnya terletak di tautan di roda gigi kontrol yang ternyata keluar jalur.

Dengan tekanan yang disimpan pada mesin ruang cangkang untuk waktu yang lama, banyak air telah terakumulasi di ruang cangkang dan tempat sampah. Pengisap dipasang hanya dari pompa 350-tomnm dan ini tidak memuaskan untuk menangani jumlah air yang relatif kecil. Drainase sangat dibutuhkan. Disarankan agar saluran pembuangan dipasang di setiap ujung setiap ruang cangkang dan lubang pembuangan yang lebih besar dibuat di tempat sampah karena lubang pembuangan cukup memadai dan mudah tersumbat.

Saluran pembuangan harus diarahkan ke bagian bawah bagian dalam di bawah ruang penanganan cordite. Katup satu arah dan segel lampu kilat dapat dipasang jika dianggap perlu.

Dalam perjalanan ke Rosyth setelah aksi, dua nampan engsel selanjutnya di ruang penanganan cangkang “Y” ditekuk dengan mengotori cincin cangkang yang berputar.


Sejarah Royal Caribbean Cruise Line

Royal Caribbean International (awalnya Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines) dimulai pada tahun 1968 sebagai konsorsium dari tiga pemilik kapal Norwegia yang ingin masuk ke pasar pelayaran AS yang berkembang pesat.

Kapal pesiar pertama untuk jalur ini adalah Song of Norway, yang memulai debutnya pada tahun 1970, diikuti oleh Nordic Prince pada tahun 1971 dan Sun Viking pada tahun 1972. Enam tahun kemudian, Royal Caribbean mengambil langkah berani untuk meregangkan Song of Norway, memperpanjangnya hingga 85 kaki. . Dua tahun kemudian, garis mengulangi latihan dengan Pangeran Nordik.

Pada tahun 1982, Royal Caribbean menganut tren kapal besar yang telah melekat sejak itu, meluncurkan Song of America, yang pada saat itu merupakan kapal penumpang terbesar ketiga di laut, menampung sedikit lebih dari 1.500 orang.

Jalur berubah dari berinvestasi di kapal selama beberapa tahun menjadi berinvestasi dalam penawaran berbasis darat, menyewa properti pesisir di Haiti pada tahun 1986, yang telah ditawarkan kepada penumpang sebagai pengalaman "pulau" pribadi Labadee sejak saat itu.

Royal Caribbean kembali melakukan ekspansi armada dua tahun kemudian dan membuat sejarah dengan kapal kelas Sovereign pertamanya. Dianggap sebagai mega-kapal pertama di era jelajah modern, Sovereign of the Seas diluncurkan pada tahun 1988, dan dengan berat 70.000 ton, kapal itu hampir dua kali ukuran Song of America. Meskipun hanya berukuran sedang menurut standar saat ini, Sovereign of the Seas sangat besar pada zamannya, dan benar-benar mengerdilkan setiap pesaing pada zaman itu. Fitur paling sensasional - selain ukurannya yang tipis - adalah pengenalan atrium kapal modern pertama, lengkap dengan lift kaca dan grand piano, mengingatkan pada hotel mewah. Kapal tersebut juga memperkenalkan konsep seluruh dek yang dikhususkan untuk kabin dengan balkon pribadi, serta Viking Crown Lounge dan Windjammer Cafe yang menjadi ciri khas Royal Caribbean.

Pada tahun yang sama, jalur tersebut membeli Little Stirrup Cay, sebuah pulau di Bahama, yang diubah menjadi tujuan pribadi keduanya "CocoCay."

Juga pada tahun yang sama, Royal Caribbean membeli Admiral Cruises, sebuah perusahaan yang mengkhususkan diri dalam pelayaran pendek, dan mengubah Stardancer yang hampir baru menjadi Serenade Viking Royal Caribbean pada tahun 1990 setelah reparasi besar-besaran selama enam bulan. (Sampai saat ini, Viking Serenade, yang meninggalkan armada pada tahun 2002, tetap menjadi satu-satunya kapal yang mengibarkan bendera Royal Caribbean yang awalnya tidak diluncurkan untuk perusahaan tersebut.)

Bangunan baru Admiral Cruises lainnya diluncurkan untuk Royal Caribbean pada tahun 1990 dengan nama Nordic Empress. (Pada tahun 2004, untuk mengikuti konvensi penamaan "of the Seas", kapal itu berganti nama menjadi Empress of the Seas.)

Tidak puas menunggu jalur lain menyusul, Royal Caribbean meluncurkan kapal saudara kelas Sovereign yang lebih besar, Monarch of the Seas dan Majesty of the Seas, berturut-turut dengan cepat masing-masing pada tahun 1991 dan 1992.

Sekitar waktu yang sama ketika Royal Caribbean terlibat dalam pertumbuhan yang cepat ini, jalur tersebut go public di New York Stock Exchange, pada tahun 1993.

By the early 1990s Royal Caribbean moved on to another challenge: designing ships for use outside its traditional cruising grounds in the Caribbean. While the company had sent some of its oldest, smallest ships farther afield to destinations like Alaska and Europe, Royal Caribbean hadn't built a ship specifically for worldwide cruising. This changed in 1995 with the introduction of Legend of the Seas, which brought Royal Caribbean into a whole new era.

Smaller than the Sovereign-class ships, Legend, a Vision-class ship, was by far the most luxurious ship Royal Caribbean had ever built, with bigger cabins, more space per passenger and a wider variety of public areas and open decks. The popular shipboard mini-golf course was introduced, as was Royal Caribbean's now-signature adults-only indoor/outdoor pool area, the Solarium, one of the most impressive shipboard spaces that had been built to date. Legend was closely followed by its sister, Splendour of the Seas (1996), and then by two pairs of slightly larger near-sisters: Grandeur (1996) and Enchantment of the Seas (1997), and Rhapsody (1997) and Vision of the Seas (1998).

At the same time, between 1995 and 1999, the company disposed of the four original ships and replaced them with the new Vision-class ships. Also, in 1997, Royal Caribbean acquired Celebrity Cruises and changed the name of the Royal Caribbean fleet to Royal Caribbean International, with the parent company taking on the name Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.

Having established itself outside the Caribbean, Royal Caribbean turned back to developing its core market. In the mid-1990s, as the Vision-class ships entered service to rave reviews, the company began planning a new ship that would redefine the cruise industry as much, if not more than Sovereign of the Seas had in the previous decade. Code named "Project Eagle," the ship began sailing in 1999 as Voyager of the Seas -- and dwarfed every mega-ship that had come before (though not for long).

With features like an ice rink, rock climbing wall and indoor promenade, Voyager of the Seas was the most innovative ship design in decades, the first ship that genuinely felt more like a resort than a ship. Four ships would follow -- Explorer of the Seas (2000), Adventure of the Seas (2001), Navigator of the Seas (2002) and Mariner of the Seas (2003) -- and the Voyager class became the defining mega-ship design of the early 21st century.

But the line wasn't done and the four Radiance-class ships -- Radiance of the Seas (2001), Brilliance of the Seas (2002), Serenade of the Seas (2003) and Jewel of the Seas (2004) -- were built in the early 2000s as a follow-up to the Vision-class vessels of the 1990s. Similarly designed for worldwide cruising, they are larger, with more balconies, dining choices and public areas.

After the launch of so many new ships, the company's formerly innovative older ships were beginning to look old and tired. Between 2004 and 2007, Royal Caribbean spent millions of dollars to refit Monarch of the Seas, Empress of the Seas (formerly Nordic Empress), Sovereign of the Seas, Enchantment of the Seas (including a "stretch" of Enchantment) and Majesty of the Seas. Despite the refurbishments, a few ships just didn't cut it and Royal Caribbean transferred two ships to its Spanish subsidiary, Pullmantur, in 2008: Empress of the Seas in March and Sovereign of the Seas in October. (Monarch of the Seas was transferred to Pullmantur in 2013.) Empress of the Seas was transferred back to Royal Caribbean in 2016 after a massive refurbishment.

In the midst of the refurbishments, Royal Caribbean introduced its next class of ships, the even bigger Freedom class. In 2006, the line debuted Freedom of the Seas, an enlarged, enhanced version of the Voyager-class design that introduced new features like a water park and onboard surfing to the array of Voyager-class amenities. The Freedom class also includes Liberty of the Seas (2007) and Independence of the Seas (2008).

In fall 2009, the line launched the biggest cruise ship the world had ever seen. The 225,282-ton, 5,400-passenger Oasis of the Seas was more than 40 percent larger than Freedom of the Seas and introduced a unique system of seven onboard "neighborhoods," and a split-back design that opened the back of the ship to the open air. A year later, sister ship Allure of the Seas debuted. A third, slightly larger Oasis-class ship, Harmony of the Seas, debuted in 2016, and a fourth, Symphony of the Seas launched in 2018. The ships remain the largest in the world to date.Two more Oasis-class ships are on order, for delivery in 2021 and 2023, respectively.

But Royal Caribbean hasn't entirely committed to only having the biggest ships in the world, releasing several smaller 158,000-ton, 4,100-passenger Quantum-class ships during this time, as well. The first, Quantum of the Seas, launched in fall 2014 for a North American audience but was quickly sent to the bourgeoning Asia cruise market. Sister ship Anthem of the Seas debuted in spring 2015 to cater to North Americans, while Ovation of the Seas launched in spring 2016 and markets to Asians and Australians, though it also sails an Alaska season during the summer. A fourth ship, Spectrum of the Seas, technically part of the Quantum Ultra Class, launched in 2019 it also sails in Asia, while the fifth (also technially Quantum Ultra Class) in the series, Odyssey of the Seas launches in 2020 in North America.

Not a line to take a break, yet another new class of ships is on the way from Royal Caribbean. The first Project Icon ship is scheduled to launch in 2022. At 200,000 tons, it will be smaller than the Oasis class but larger than Quantum class.

The line also continues to shed some of its older ships with Splendour of the Seas having left the fleet in 2016 and Legend of the Seas out the door in 2017.


Radiance Class

Ships in class: Radiance of the Seas (2001) Brilliance of the Seas (2002) Serenade of the Seas (2003) Jewel of the Seas (2004)

Size: 90,090 tons

Radiance of the Seas. (Photo courtesy of Royal Caribbean)

Not sure that you want to sail on a megaship with 6,000 people but still want a vessel with a good amount of features and activities? The Radiance Class ships may be the perfect solution.

At 90,090 tons, the four vessels in the series are less than half the size of Royal Caribbean&rsquos massive Oasis Class ships, but still big enough that they have a lot to offer.

Each of the vessels has more than a half-dozen places to eat including a main restaurant, casual buffet, steakhouse, Italian restaurant and Asian venue.

You&rsquoll also find three pools on each of the ships, whirlpools, rock-climbing walls, miniature golf courses, sports courts and adults-only solariums. Each of the ships also has a theater, spa, casino and multiple bars and lounges.

The pool decks on Radiance Class ships aren&rsquot nearly as big as on Oasis Class or Quantum Class vessels. (Photo courtesy of Royal Caribbean)

What you won&rsquot find on the ships, because of their smaller size, are all the gee-whiz attractions, such as ice-skating rinks, surfing simulators, giant waterslides and bumper cars pavilions, that Royal Caribbean has put on its bigger vessels. If you can&rsquot live without those sorts of features on a cruise ship, then the Radiance Class probably isn&rsquot for you.

Each of the Radiance Class ships holds a bit over 2,100 passengers at double occupancy (plus a few hundred more with every berth filled). That&rsquos less than half the amount of passengers you&rsquoll find on the biggest Royal Caribbean ships.

That makes them perfect for cruisers who want to get away from the sort of crowds that are on the biggest megaships without giving up many of the amenities that big ships have to offer.


HMS Vanguard: Britain’s Last and Greatest Battleship

Britain’s last, largest and fastest battleship, HMS Pelopor, was commissioned in May 1946.[1] She was technically the best battleship the British ever built, but was completed too late for the Second World War, never tested in combat, and entered service at a time of severe budgetary constraints and rapid technological change, curtailing her operational life. What that obscures is the fact that she was part of a continuum of thinking that shaped British designs from the Raja George V class, through the suspended (and then cancelled) Lions, and which took in war experience along the way.

As described in another article, Pelopor was ordered from John Brown & Co in mid-March 1941,[2] and plans were delivered ten days later.[3] She was laid down in October,[4] and prioritised after the loss of Pangeran Wales dan Memukul mundur in December.[5] This priority was reflected in Churchill’s plans for 1942, where he ruled out work on the two suspended Singa class battleships laid down in 1939, cancelled two further Lions outright, cancelled four heavy cruisers from the 1940 programme, and ordered that shipyard labour should focus on repairing merchants and completing new fleet carriers.[6] The exception was Pelopor, which he wanted ‘pressed forward’ within the ‘limits of the armour-plate provision’ of some 16,500 tons nationally in 1941 – divided between army and navy – and 25,000 tons in 1942.[7] Pelopor had already been assigned constructional steel originally delivered for Singa.[8]

However, this did not pan out as Churchill hoped. One constraint was labour availability. The result was that Pelopor was not launched until the end of November 1944.[9] The design was further amended after she was laid down, although the scope for change dwindled as construction progressed. A 1942 proposal to convert Pelopor to an aircraft carrier was declined,[10] but amendments continued on the basis of war experience. This included the loss of Pangeran Wales and lessons from the Belfast,[11] among other events such as the battle of the Denmark Strait in May 1941. This last resulted, among other things, in additional armour on Pelopor’s magazine sides for improved splinter protection.[12]

Pelopor also gained significant bow flare,[13] defeating the Admiralty requirement for zero-elevation ahead-fire, but which promised to rectify the sea-keeping problems the Raja George V class had in even moderate swells.[14] The rake had to be restricted so the ship could fit into the Devonport graving dock,[15] and it was also, as R. J. Daniel observed, clearly a ‘late change’.[16] Many other adjustments, including deletion of aircraft facilities in favour of an improved anti-aircraft battery, were included in revised plans approved in November 1942.[17]

As we saw in an earlier article, Pelopor emerged from a 1937 idea to use four twin Mk I 15-inch gun mountings in storage since being removed from what were officially dubbed the ‘large light cruisers’ Berani dan Glorious, ordered in 1915.[18] One of the criticisms was that Pelopor‘s main armament consequently fell below the latest standards when, for example, Germany was deploying the 38 cm SK C/34,[19] Italy the long-ranged 381 mm/50 calibre weapon (1934 and 1939 models),[20] and likely allies such as the United States were developing a new generation of 16-inch guns,[21] including the outstanding Mk VII.[22]

All this meant that Pelopor gained the epithet – repeated in popular histories since – of being armed with ‘her great aunt’s teeth’.[23] However, the Vickers Mk I 15-inch/42 calibre gun was an outstanding weapon when first deployed in 1915,[24] offering excellent hitting power and range by First World War standards, coupled with superb accuracy and low bore wear.[25] And while by the 1930s this gun had been surpassed in size and many performance details,[26] it remained in front-line service with the Royal Navy.[27]

More to the point, while the Mk I 15-inch/42 lacked the range or armour penetration of more recent and larger weapons,[28] performance details such as muzzle velocity remained comparable with new-generation naval guns.[29] Furthermore, while below the general capabilities of the new-generation Mk II, III and, eventually, Mk IV 16-inch guns the British intended to deploy on the Lions,[30] the theoretical armour penetration of the MK I 15-inch/42 at specific ranges was marginally lebih baik than the new-generation Mk VII 14-inch/45 calibre guns fitted to the Raja George V class.[31] Deficiencies in range, by 1930s standards, were partially and variously corrected by modifying some of the Mk I mountings to 30 degree elevation, introducing more streamlined (6-crh) shells, and permitting heavier charges (‘supercharges’) on unmodified mountings.[32] Vanguard, it is worth noting, had modified mountings and not supercharges.[33]

There is also the point that the Mk I 15-inch/42 did all the British asked of it in the Second World War. Outcomes included destroying Bretagne with four hits during the bombardment of Mers-el-Kebir in July 1940.[34] This gun in its modified mounting also scored one of the longest-range hits known in naval warfare, during the battle of Calabria the same month, when medan perang memukul Guilio Cesare at a range of about 26,000 yards.[35] Nor were these guns much lacking by comparison with other heavy naval weapons when it came to shore bombardment.[36] This last role was how the Mk I 15-inch/42 began its career in 1915,[37] and medan perang – notably – again demonstrated that capability in the Second World War.[38]

The mountings were modified for Pelopor by Harland and Wolff in the former Coventry Ordnance Works.[39] Alterations included new trunnion blocks for higher elevation,[40] with added insulation and dehumidifiers to improve conditions for gun crews.[41] The fact that none of the mountings had been built for superfiring positions meant that other adjustments had to be made to the pair intended for ‘B’ and ‘X’ locations.[42] However, the main change stemmed from the fact that Pelopor’s magazines were below the shell rooms, reversing First World War practice.[43] This meant adapting the below-decks structures and adding a powder-handling room.[44]

One point, not often stated in summary accounts,[45] is that Pelopor used only the mountings dari Glorious dan Berani – although these were the more mechanically complex part of the armament, including the gun-houses and below-decks equipment.[46] NS senjata fitted to the mountings were drawn from a pool comprising most of the 184 service examples that were manufactured.[47] These were rotated ashore as each barrel needed relining, then variously reissued. The guns used on Pelopor had previously been deployed on Ratu Elizabeth (2), Ramillies (2), Royal Sovereign (1), Resolusi (1), the monitor Erebus (1) and medan perang (1).[48] The cost of this work was £3,186,868,[49] and the task was completed in 1944.[50] The modified mountings were dubbed Mark I/N RP 12.[51]

Pelopor was launched on 30 November 1944,[52] and fitting out began with the aim of completing her by late 1945. Had the Pacific war continued into 1946 – as the Allies expected and planned for[53] – Pelopor would likely have joined the British Pacific Fleet.[54] As matters stood, war’s end in August 1945 reduced the pressure, and she was not commissioned until April 1946.[55] Pada saat Pelopor was complete, the war was over and new technologies had rendered battleships largely obsolete as the primary means of asserting sea superiority. They still had roles, but an impoverished post-war Britain could not afford to run such ships for long.[56]

As a result, while Pelopor did serve with the Royal Navy,[57] she was as much symbolic as anything else – underscored by the fact that she was used as a royal yacht, notably for the royal tour of South Africa in 1947.[58] War plans in 1951 tasked Pelopor with destroying Soviet Sverdlov-class cruisers,[59] but aside from the fact that aircraft were also available for the job, whether the ship could have met the intended 90-day war readiness criteria was moot. By this time, thanks to budgetary constraints, X-turret was non-operational and Pelopor did not carry enough crew to operate all the magazines.[60] Nor was ammunition for the main armament usually carried.[61] The original design called for 100 rounds per gun,[62] a significant total weight,[63] and on first commission she carried an additional 9 practise shells per gun.[64] In the event, the closest Pelopor came to any of the Soviet cruisers was in 1953 when the name-ship of the Soviet class attended the Coronation Review – and Sverdlov’s commander boarded the battleship, to a formal welcome by Admiral Sir George Creasey.[65]

After a refit in 1955 Pelopor was taken out of service, becoming flagship of the Reserve Fleet in October 1956.[66] In this role, among other things, she provided sets for the film Sink The Bismarck.[67] By this time she was also Britain’s last battleship the Raja George V class were disposed of by 1957.[68] In October 1959 Pelopor too was put on the disposal list.[69] She was sold to the breakers for £560,000,[70] and in August 1960 was towed out of Portsmouth for scrapping at Faslane.[71] She did not go quietly, running aground on the way out, near the Still and West pub.[72] The tide was ebbing,[73] and she was thought to be at some risk of being swung by the tide across to Fort Blockhouse and breaking her back – creating an expensive salvage job.[74] Even if she did not, she might have had to wait for the next high tide.[75] However, she was pulled free after about 45 minutes and left the harbour – ending an era in British naval history

Hak Cipta © Matthew Wright 2018

[1] Friedman, Kapal Perang Inggris 1906-46, P. 441, but see Fry p. 18 who states 25 April.

[3] Alan Raven and John Roberts, British Battleships of World War Two: The Development and Technical History of the Royal Navy’s Battleships and Battlecruisers from 1911 to 1946, Arms & Armour Press, London 1976, p. 322.

[4] Alan Raven and John Roberts, British Battleships of World War Two: The Development and Technical History of the Royal Navy’s Battleships and Battlecruisers from 1911 to 1946, Arms & Armour Press, London 1976, p. 322.

[5] Matthew Wright, Pacific War, Reed, Auckland 2003, pp. 22-26.

[6] Winston Churchill, Perang Dunia Kedua, III, Aliansi Besar, P. 780.

[7] Ibid. Tonnages given in this article are British ‘long tons’.

[8] Friedman, Kapal Perang Inggris 1906-46, P. 339.

[14] The issue included the interaction, during design, between displacement and freeboard, see Garzke and Dulin, British, Soviet, French and Dutch battleships of World War II, P. 175.

[15] Friedman, Kapal Perang Inggris 1906-46, P. 340.

[16] R. J. Daniel, NS End of an Era, Periscope Publishing, Penzance, 2003, p. 72.

[17] Friedman, Kapal Perang Inggris 1906-46, P. 340..

[23] See, e.g. E. H. H. Archibald, The Metal Fighting Ship in the Royal Navy, Blandford Press, London 1971, p. 83.

[24] B. Webster Smith HMS Ratu Elizabeth, Blackie & Son, London 1940, pp. 148-177.

[25] Norman Friedman, Naval Weapons of World War I, Seaforth, Barnsley 2011, pp. 43-46.

[26] See, e.g. http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNBR_15-42_mk1.php

[27] All 15 of Britain’s battleships and battlecruisers permitted after 1932 under the inter-war treaty system carried them.

[28] Compare, e.g. tables in http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNBR_15-42_mk1.php with tables for the US Mk VII 16-inch/50 http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNUS_16-50_mk7.php

[29] This was because materially higher velocities destabilised shells. See http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNBR_15-42_mk1.php.

[34] Bretagne was of similar vintage to the British guns. Robert Dumas and John Jordan, French battleships 1922-1956, Seaforth, Barnsley 2009, p. 76.

[35] Andrew Browne Cunningham, ‘Report of an action with the Italian fleet off Calabria, 9 th July 1940’, London Gazette (Supplement), 27 April 1948. Cunningham considered this hit ‘lucky’. A hit at similar range was scored by Scharnhorst pada Glorious in 1940.

[36] Noting that naval guns, because of trajectory, were not optimised for some land targets.

[37] See, e.g., Matthew Wright, The New Zealand Experience at Gallipoli and the Western Front, Oratia 2017, pp 78-79.

[38] She had only six operational guns at this time. For the general story of this ship see Iain Ballantyne, medan perang, Pen and Sword Books, 2010.

[45] For example Antony Preston and John Bachelor, Battleships 1919-77, Phoebus, London, p. 58.

[53] In 1945 the Allies expected to invade Japan and Operation Coronet, the landing on Honshu, was planned for March 1946. The campaign was expected to last some months, see https://history.army.mil/books/wwii/MacArthur%20Reports/MacArthur%20V1/ch13.htm

[54] For summary of BPF operations see, e.g. Matthew Wright, Blue Water Kiwis, Reed, Auckland 2000, pp. 139-144.

[56] Friedman Kapal Perang Inggris 1906-46, P. 367.

[59] The world’s last gun-armed cruisers, for brief summary see Bernard Ireland, The Illustrated Guide to Cruisers, Hermes House, London 2008, pp 238-239.

[60] Peacetime complement was circa 1500 versus circa 2000 in wartime, see http://battleshiphmsvanguard.homestead.com/Specifications.html

[63] The various British 15-inch shells deployed during the Second World War (APC Mk XIIa, HE Mk VIIIb, etc) weighed 1935 lb each, see http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNBR_15-42_mk1.php

[66] Eric Grove, The Royal Navy Since 1815: A New Short History, Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke 2005, p.

[68] Garzke and Dulin, Kapal perang Inggris, Soviet, Prancis, dan Belanda pada Perang Dunia II, P. 223.


Royal Sovereign Class battleships in line ahead (1 of 2) - History

Revell 1:500 HMS Royal Sovereign

An In Box Review by Ian Wilkins

Overview:
This kit is a reissue of the old Frog Revenge kit. After Frog went out of business the moulds wound up in the Soviet Union where the kit was produced for several years. Now Revell have the moulds and have re-issued the kit as Royal Sovereign.

The kit is really much more accurate for HMS Revenge that Royal Sovereign. I checked it against photos and drawings in R A Burt's British Battleships of World war One, which has excellent plan, profile, and inboard profile drawings for this class. In the 1930s several members of this class had tripod legs fitted to their mainmasts including Royal Sovereign. As fas as I have been able to tell Revenge was not so fitted and the kit does not include these tripod legs. It also has the correct pattern of long base rangefinders on B and X turrets for Revenge. I'd say the kit represents HMS Revenge as she appeared early in WWII with radar and some small calibre AA weapons added.

For an old kit that's been through a lot Revell's Royal Sovereign is in surprisingly good shape. There is a bit of flash about but the mould alignment seems good and all the parts are useable. What follows are a few comments based on a survey of the components and instruction sheet.

Strangely the 4 inch mounts have an extraneous stem on the underside that the instruction sheet says must be cut off before attaching them to the deck. The barrels for these are way to short and will need replacing with wire. There are also some heavy mould lines that will need sanding off. The pom-pom mounts are simple but cleanly executed, and in this scale a lot of extra detail could be added. the 15 inch turrets are fairly accurate in shape and the barrels useable, though these will need a bit of cleaning up. The 6 inch casemate mounts are a bit disappointing, there being large gaps that will allow you to see right out the other side of the hull. blanking pieces cut from plastic card will be needed here along with some good references to get things looking right.

The hull looks accurate in outline and is well moulded with no sinkmarks or warpage. The massive bulges that were fitted to this class after construction are OK in shape but there is little hull detail apart from some faintly moulded scuttles. Pictures show a variety of details that could be added to the ship's sides. The hull scales out accurately in beam and length. The markings for the boot topping are wrong leaving the vessel with too little freeboard. The upper line should be lowered by 2 millimetres and the lower one raised by 1.5 millimetres for a more correct appearance. You will also have to add your own bilge keels.

The decks seem to fit neatly into the hull but there is very little deck detail. Checking references will be necessary to liven up this area of the model. Deck planking is shown as lightly raised lines and looks quite acceptable.

The bridgework is made up of quite simple pieces and the funnel is closed over on top and will need cutting open. At any rate some modellers will want to construct the proper clinker screen here. The boats are good, there's a little flash, but no sinkmarks. The two pinnaces look especially good.

Finally, the instuctions offer two colour schemes, one of which is a camoflage scheme and the other an all over light grey scheme. The camoflage is probably more accurate for a radar equiped ship.


  • Destroyers
      - 2x1 Bofors 3.9" guns, 2x1 21" torpedo tubes - A lucky and famous little ship!
    • from Recognition Journal as of Sep43 and (for the Rudderow/Butler/Samuel B. Roberts DEs) from ONI 222 as of 1945.
    • Kapal Perang (BB)
      • Old Battleships, as of 1943
          - 6x2 12" guns, see notes for secondaries - 5x2 14" guns, see notes for secondaries - 2x2, 2x3 14" guns, 8x2 5" dual purpose guns - 4x3 14" guns, 8x2 5" dual purpose guns - 4x3 14" guns, see notes for secondaries - 4x3 14" guns, 8x2 5" guns - 4x2 16" guns, 18x1 5" guns
        • - 3x3 16" guns, 10x2 5" guns - with photo - 3x3 16" guns, 8(or 10)x2 5" guns - with photo - 3x3 16" guns, 10x2 5" guns - with photo
      • - 90+ aircraft - with photo - 100+ aircraft - with photo - 1:1800 "2-D model" - 35 aircraft - with photos - 45 aircraft - with photos - 30 aircraft - with photos
        - 3x3 12" guns, 6x2 5" guns - with photos
      • Northampton class Heavy Cruisers, 1942 and 1945 (CA) - 3x3 8" guns, 8x1 5" guns - with photos - 3x3 8" guns, 8x1 5" guns - with photos - 3x3 8" guns, 8x1 5" guns - with photos (CA) - 3x3 8" guns, 6x2 5" guns - with photo (CL) - 4x3 6" guns, 6x2 5" guns - with photo (CL) - 5x3 6" guns, 8x1 5" guns - with photos (CL) - 5x3 6" guns, 4x2 5" guns - with photos (CL) - 2x2, 6x1 6" guns, 8x1 3" guns - with photo - 8x2 and then 6x2 5" guns. (CL) - 6x2 6" dual purpose guns, many twin 3" guns - with photos
        - 4x1 5" guns, 4x4 21" torpedo tubes - with photos - 5x1 5" guns, 2x5 21" torpedo tubes - with photos - 3x2 5" guns, 2x5 (Gearings, 1x5) 21" torpedo tubes - with photos
      • Small Sideview Drawings of Imperial Japanese Navy Warships:
      • Battleships
          - 4x2 14" guns - 6x2 14" guns, 16x1 6" guns, 4x2 5" guns - 4x2 16" guns
        • - 3x2 8" guns, 4x1 4.7" guns, 2x4 24" torpedo tubes - 5x2 8" guns, 4x1 or 4x2 4.7" guns, 4x4 24" torpedo tubes - 5x2 8" guns, 4x2 4.7" guns, 4x3 24" torpedo tubes - 2x2,2x1 5.5" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - 7x1 5.5" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes
        • Asashio class Super Destroyers - 3x2 5" guns, 2x4 24" reloadable torpedo tubes - 3x2 5" guns, 3x3 24" reloadable torpedo tubes
        • The old Wakatake and Minekaze class Destroyers - 3x1 4.7" guns, 2x2 21" torpedo tubes and 4x1 4.7" guns and 3x2 21" torpedo tubes
          - (591' long, 74' beam) - (503+' long, 65' beam) - (456' long, 58' beam) - (508' long, 62' beam
        • Small Sideview Drawings of Royal Navy Warships:
        • Battleships and Battle Cruisers
            - 4x2 15" guns, 10x2 4.5" guns - 4x2 15" guns, various smaller - 4x2 15" guns, various smaller - 4x2 15" guns, various smaller - 3x2 15" guns, various smaller
          • - 4x2 6" guns, 4x2 4" guns, 2x4 21" torpedo tubes - 4x2 6" guns, 4x2 4" guns, 2x4 21" torpedo tubes - 5x2 5.25" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - New, 11Jun09
            - standard armament: 3x2 4.7" guns, 1x2 4" dual purpose guns, 1x4 2 pdr pom pom antiaircraft guns, 1x4 21" torpedo tubes - standard armament: 3x2 4.7" guns, 1x1 4" antiaircraft gun, quad antiaircraft pom pom, 1x4 21" torpedo tubes - initial armament: 5x1 4.7" guns, 1x1 3" antiaircraft gun, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - later reduced for more antiaircraft and antisubmarine weapons. - initial armament: 4x1 4.7" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - later reduced for more antiaircraft and antisubmarine weapons. - standard armament: 3x2 4" guns, quad antiaircraft pom pom - New, 17May10
            : Roberts Monitor, Hunt Types 1-4 Escort Destroyers, etc.
          • Small Sideview Drawings of Kriegsmarine Warships:
          • Battleships
              - 4x2 15" guns, 6x2 5.9" guns, 8x2 4.1" AA guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes
              - 3x3 11" guns, 4x1+4x2 5.9" guns, 7x2 4.1" AA guns
            • - never completed
              - 2x3 11" guns, 8x1 5.9" guns, 3x2 3.5" guns, 2x4 21" torpedo tubes - Same as Luetzow
              - 4x2 8" guns, 6x2 3.5" guns, 4x3 21" torpedo tubes - Same as for Hipper - 3x3 5.9" guns, 3x2 3.5" AA guns, 4x3 21" torpedo tubes - 3x3 5.9" guns, 4x2 3.5" AA guns, 4x3 21" torpedo tubes - 3x3 5.9" guns, 3x2 3.5" guns, 4x3 21" torpedo tubes
              - 5x1 5" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes classes - 5x1 5" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes - 4x1 5.9" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes
              - 2x1 4.1" guns
              Battleships
                - 2x3,2x2 12.6" guns, 6x2 4.7" guns - 2x3,2x2 12.6" guns, 4x3 5.3" guns
                - 4x2 8" guns, various smaller, no torpedo tubes. - 4x2 8" guns, 6x2 3.9" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes - 4x2 8" guns, 8x2 3.9" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes - 4x2 6" guns, 3x2 3.9" guns, 2x2 21" torpedo tubes - 4x2 6" guns, 3x2 3.9" guns, 2x2 21" torpedo tubes - 2x2, 2x3 (10) 6" guns, 4x2 3.9" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - 4x2 5.3" guns, 2x4 21" torpedo tubes
                - 3x2 4.7" guns, 2x2(or3) 21" torpedo tubes
                - 3x1 4" guns, 4x1 18" torpedo tubes
                Battleships
                  - 4x3 12" guns, others as shown - Revised, 19Jul09
                  - 3x3 7.1" guns, 8x1 2.9" guns 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - New, 22Jul09 - 5x1 5.1" guns, 2x4 21" torpedo tubes - New, 19Jul09
                  Battleship and Battle Cruisers
                    - 2x4 15" guns, 3x3" guns, 6x2 3.9" antiaircraft guns - 2x4 13" guns, 3x4, 2x2 5.1" guns, assorted antiaircraft guns - 2x4 13" guns, 3x4, 2x2 5.1" guns, assorted antiaircraft guns
                    - 4x2 8" guns, 6x2 3.9" dual purpose guns, 2x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 4x2 8" guns, 6x2 3.9" dual purpose guns, 2x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 4x2 8" guns, 6x2 3.9" dual purpose guns, 2x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 3x3 6.1" guns, 4x2 3.5" guns, 2x2 21.7" torpedo tubes - 4x2 6.1" guns, 4x1 3" guns, 4x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 4x2 6.1" guns, 4x1 3" guns, 4x3 21.7" torpedo tubes
                    - 4x1 5.1" guns, 1x4, 2x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 5x1 5.4" guns, 1x4, 2x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 4x2 5.1" guns, 1x3, 2x2 21.7" torpedo tubes - 3x2 5.1" guns, 1x3, 2x2 21.7" torpedo tubes
                    Battleships
                      - 2x2 11" guns, 6x1 6" guns - New, 12May10
                      - 2x2, 2x1 6" guns, 1x2, 2x1 3" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - New, 12May10
                      - 3x1 4.7" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - New, 12May10

                    NOTES:
                    I have the basic FM 30-50/NAVAER 00-80V-57 Recognition Pictorial Manual of Naval Vessels volume, of course, as well as its Supplement No. 1 which contains the large scale plans for the British cruisers and destroyers.
                    The late war German destroyer and torpedoboat and (all the) Soviet plans were found in the July 1, 1950 ONI 200 manual. (Many of the lighter German ships had been awarded to the Soviets and French as war reparations.)
                    I finally found a good quality plan of the SIMS class destroyer in my recently acquired copy of ONI 54, although that may have been inserted as a supplement, in which case I have no idea when or where it was distributed.
                    I also have the late war ONI manual for ALL the Japanese merchant ships -- most having drawings. (The early war edition I interlibrary loaned from MIT lacked drawings for most ships.)
                    I have the presentation version of the ONI manual for Japanese warships, having photos of models taken from different angles, to facilitate recognition by aviators as well as gunnery officers. Those would be much too space-consuming, though.
                    I have gotten a complete copy of the 1943 ONI manual for Italian warships. Unhappily, it omitted the Trieste/Trento heavy cruisers and early/weak Colleoni class light cruisers: they had already been sunk! However, an ONI page for Trieste/Trento popped up in an otherwise incomplete set.
                    I also have the little 1941 War Department recognition booklets for the U.S., British, and French, but those appear to have been little more than reprintings of Jane's drawings which weren't sufficiently accurate.
                    I also picked up a Luftwaffe August 1940 Englische und franzoesische Kriegsschiffe identification book produced by Mittler and Son in Berlin. It too only used Jane's drawings, although presciently cited Hood's weak armor the year before Denmark Straits.

                    And now, 5Jan12, I have at some expense acquired an original ONI 203, French Naval Vessels, Feb43. Although I finally have the ONI plans for both battle cruisers Dunkerque and Strasbourg and heavily armored heavy cruiser Algerie, ONI 203 is disappointing: the only deck and side plans for destroyers were for the Simoun class, and I was hoping for finally having some for the Mogador/Volta and LeHardi heavy and late construction classes. I suspect the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon in Nov42 removed the need for a more comprehensive coverage in Feb43. Fortunately, there are such plans for the Suffren and Tourville heavy(?) cruiser classes in the 1950 ONI 200, but still .


                    5 Most Lethal Battleship Battles of All Time

                    They were monsters on the high-seas and symbols of national power. The battles they waged were epic.

                    The age of the steel line-of-battleship really began in the 1880s, with the construction of a series of warships that could carry and independently aim heavy guns external to the hull. In 1905, HMS Dreadnought brought together an array of innovations in shipbuilding, propulsion, and gunnery to create a new kind of warship, one that could dominate all existing battleships.

                    Although eventually supplanted by the submarine and the aircraft carrier, the battleship took pride of place in the navies of the first half of the twentieth century. The mythology of of the battleship age often understates how active many of the ships were both World War I and World War II saw numerous battleship engagements. These are the five most important battles of the dreadnought age.

                    Battle of Jutland:

                    In the years prior to World War I, Britain and Germany raced to outbuild each other, resulting in vast fleets of dreadnought battleships. The British won the race, but not by so far that they could ignore the power of the German High Seas Fleet. When war began, the Royal Navy collected most of its modern battleships into the Grand Fleet, based at Scapa Flow.

                    The High Seas Fleet and the Grand Fleet spared for nearly three years before the main event. In May 1916, Admiral Reinhard Scheer and Admiral John Jellicoe laid dueling traps Scheer hoped to draw a portion of the Grand Fleet under the guns of the High Seas Fleet, while Jellicoe sought to bring the latter into the jaws of the former. Both succeeded, to a point British battlecruisers and fast battleships engaged the German line of battle, before the arrival of the whole of the Grand Fleet put German survival in jeopardy.

                    The two sides fought for most of an afternoon. The Germans has sixteen dreadnought battleships, six pre-dreadnoughts, and five battlecruisers. Against this, the British fielded twenty-eight dreadnoughts and nine battlecruisers. Jellicoe managed to trap the Germans on the wrong side of the Grand Fleet, but in a confused night action most of the German ships passed through the British line, and to safety.

                    Many, on both sides, considered Jutland a disappointment. Both Scheer and Jellicoe believed that they missed a chance to destroy the enemy fleet, the latter with considerably more justifiable cause. Nevertheless, together the two sides lost four battlecruisers and a pre-dreadnought battleship. Had either side enjoyed a bit less luck, the losses could have been much worse.

                    Battle of Mers-el-Kebir:

                    The surrender of France in 1940 left the disposition of the French Navy in question. Many of the heavy ships, mostly located in French colonies, could aid either Axis or British forces. In early July 1940, Winston Churchill decided to take a risk averse approach. The Royal Navy would force a French decision, with the result of either seizing or destroying the French navy.

                    The largest concentration of French ships, including four French battleships, lay at Mers-el-Kebir, in Algeria. Two of the French battleships were veterans of World War I old, slow, and not particularly useful to either the Italian or the British navies. The prizes were six heavy destroyers, and the fast battleships Strasbourg and Dunkerque. These ships could contribute on either side of the conflict.

                    The British dispatched Force H from Gibraltar, consisting of HMS Hood, HMS Valiant, HMS Resolution, the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, and a flotilla of supporting ships to either intimidate or destroy the French. Royal Navy representatives submitted an ultimatum to their French counterparts, demanding that the ships either join the British, sail to America and disarm, or scuttle themselves. What precisely happened in the communications between Force H and the French commander remains in dispute. What we do know is that the British battleships opened fire, with devastating results. Bretagne’s magazine exploded, killing over a thousand French sailors. Provence and Dunkerque both took hits, and promptly beached themselves. Strasbourg made a daring dash for the exit, then outran Hood to escape the British task force.

                    In the end, the British sank one obsolete ship and damaged another. They damaged one fast battleship, and let another escape. 1300 French sailors died during the battle. Fortunately, the surviving French sailors had little interest in serving the Germans they would eventually scuttle most of their ships at Toulon, following a German invasion of Vichy.

                    Battle of Calabria:

                    Most of the battles in the Mediterranean theater in World War II came about as the result of convoy protection. The Italians needed to escort their convoys to Libya, while the British needed to escort convoys to Malta, and points east.

                    In July 1940, shortly after the destruction of the French fleet at Mers-el-Kebir, the far escorts of two convoys met each other in battle. An Italian task force consisting of the battleships Giulio Cesare, Conti di Cavour, and various smaller ships rubbed up against a British convoy including HMS Warspite, HMS Malaya, HMS Royal Sovereign, the aircraft carrier HMS Eagle, and associated escorts.

                    The Italians had the initial advantage, as the dispersal of Royal Navy ships meant that only Warspite could fire upon the Italian line. Warspite engaged both enemy ships, coming under fire from Giulio Cesare as Malaya and Royal Sovereign hurried to her aid. After several near misses on both sides, Warspite struck with one of the longest hits in the history of naval artillery. The hit, which detonated ammunition on Giulio Cesare’s deck, resulted in a loss of speed that forced the Italian ship out of line. This cost the Italians their moment of advantage with odds at 3-1, the remaining Italian ships retired.

                    Although the Italians failed to score a victory in the battle, they did demonstrate that the Royal Navy could not operate in the central Mediterranean without heavy escort. The addition of two new, modern fast battleships in the next months would give the Italians a major advantage, which the airstrike on Taranto would ameliorate only for a time. The Allies could not claim naval supremacy in the ‘Med’ until 1943, when the Italian fleet surrendered under the guns of Malta.

                    Battle of Denmark Straits:

                    When the German battleship Bismarck entered service in 1941, she became the largest warship in the world, displacing the Royal Navy battlecruiser HMS Hood. In May 1941, the Bismarck sortied from Norway in the company of the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen. The Germans planned to use the pair as commerce raiders, with Bismarck drawing off or destroying the capital ship escorts of any convoys, while Prinz Eugen concentrated on the merchant ships themselves.

                    The first task force to intercept Bismarck included HMS Hood, HMS Prince of Wales, and four destroyers. HMS Prince of Wales was theoretically comparable to Bismarck, but teething problems (she had only very recently completed trials) limited her combat effectiveness. HMS Hood carried a similar armament to Bismarck (8 15” guns), but also carried twenty more years of age.

                    Appreciating the threat that long-range fire posed to the thin deck-armor of Hood, Vice Admiral Lancelot Holland sought to close the range as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, Bismarck’s fifth salvo caught Hood amidships, resulting in a huge explosion. Analysts debate to this day what precisely happened aboard Hood, but the blast took her to the bottom so quickly that only three crewmembers (from a crew of 1419) escaped.

                    Late in the battle, Prince of Wales scored a hit on Bismarck that caused a fuel leak. This killed Bismarck’s mission she could not raid into the Atlantic with fuel running low. Bismarck broke contact with Prince of Wales (which by this time was severely hampered by gunnery breakdowns), and attempted to run for home. Two days later she was caught by HMS Rodney and HMS King George V, which avenged Hood by sending Bismarck to the bottom.

                    Second Battle of Guadalcanal:

                    In late 1942, Americans owned the day over the Solomon Islands, largely by virtue of their control of Henderson Airfield. The Japanese, on the other hand, owned the night. The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) used its advantages at night to run supplies and reinforcements to Japanese troops on Guadalcanal, and to bombard American positions.

                    On November 13, a task force including two Japanese battleships tried to “run the slot” and bombard Henderson. The IJN task force was met by a group of American cruisers and destroyers, which took advantage of surprise and good luck to cripple the battleship Hiei. American aircraft finished off Hiei the next day.

                    The following evening, the Japanese tried again. The Americans, virtually tapped out after months of grueling combat, went to their aces in the hole USS Washington and USS South Dakota, a pair of fast battleships normally tasked with escorting carriers. Four destroyers screened the two battleships. The IJN force included the battleship Kirishima (sister of Hiei, and survivor of the first battle), four cruisers, and nine destroyers.


                    Tonton videonya: RC Planes Land on RC Aircraft Carrier (November 2022).

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