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Auschwitz: Kamp Konsentrasi, Fakta, Lokasi

Auschwitz: Kamp Konsentrasi, Fakta, Lokasi


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Auschwitz, juga dikenal sebagai Auschwitz-Birkenau, dibuka pada tahun 1940 dan merupakan kamp konsentrasi dan kematian Nazi terbesar. Terletak di Polandia selatan, Auschwitz awalnya berfungsi sebagai pusat penahanan tahanan politik. Namun, itu berkembang menjadi jaringan kamp di mana orang-orang Yahudi dan musuh lain yang dianggap negara Nazi dimusnahkan, sering kali di kamar gas, atau digunakan sebagai tenaga kerja budak. Beberapa tahanan juga menjadi sasaran eksperimen medis barbar yang dipimpin oleh Josef Mengele (1911-79). Selama Perang Dunia II (1939-45), lebih dari 1 juta orang, menurut beberapa laporan, kehilangan nyawa mereka di Auschwitz. Pada Januari 1945, dengan mendekatnya tentara Soviet, para pejabat Nazi memerintahkan kamp itu ditinggalkan dan mengirim sekitar 60.000 tahanan dalam pawai paksa ke lokasi lain. Ketika Soviet memasuki Auschwitz, mereka menemukan ribuan tahanan kurus dan tumpukan mayat tertinggal.

Auschwitz: Genesis of Death Camps

Setelah dimulainya Perang Dunia II, Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), kanselir Jerman dari tahun 1933 hingga 1945, menerapkan kebijakan yang kemudian dikenal sebagai “Solusi Akhir”. Hitler bertekad tidak hanya untuk mengisolasi orang Yahudi di Jerman dan negara-negara yang dianeksasi oleh Nazi, membuat mereka tunduk pada peraturan yang tidak manusiawi dan tindakan kekerasan acak. Sebaliknya, ia menjadi yakin bahwa "masalah Yahudi" akan diselesaikan hanya dengan penghapusan setiap orang Yahudi di wilayahnya, bersama dengan seniman, pendidik, Roma, komunis, homoseksual, cacat mental dan fisik dan lain-lain yang dianggap tidak layak untuk bertahan hidup di Nazi. Jerman.

Untuk menyelesaikan misi ini, Hitler memerintahkan pembangunan kamp kematian. Tidak seperti kamp konsentrasi, yang telah ada di Jerman sejak tahun 1933 dan merupakan pusat penahanan bagi orang Yahudi, tahanan politik, dan musuh lain yang dianggap musuh negara Nazi, kamp kematian didirikan dengan tujuan tunggal untuk membunuh orang Yahudi dan “orang-orang yang tidak diinginkan” lainnya, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Holocaust.

Dengarkan Podcast SEJARAH Minggu Ini: 27 Januari 1945: "Bertahan dari Auschwitz"














Auschwitz: Kamp Kematian Terbesar

Auschwitz, yang terbesar dan bisa dibilang paling terkenal dari semua kamp kematian Nazi, dibuka pada musim semi 1940. Komandan pertamanya adalah Rudolf Höss (1900-1947), yang sebelumnya membantu menjalankan kamp konsentrasi Sachsenhausen di Oranienburg, Jerman. Auschwitz terletak di bekas pangkalan militer di luar Oswiecim, sebuah kota di Polandia selatan yang terletak di dekat Krakow, salah satu kota terbesar di negara itu. Selama pembangunan kamp, ​​pabrik-pabrik terdekat diambil alih dan semua orang yang tinggal di daerah itu diusir secara paksa dari rumah mereka, yang dibuldoser oleh Nazi.

Auschwitz awalnya dirancang sebagai kamp konsentrasi, untuk digunakan sebagai pusat penahanan bagi banyak warga Polandia yang ditangkap setelah Jerman mencaplok negara itu pada tahun 1939. Para tahanan ini termasuk aktivis anti-Nazi, politisi, anggota perlawanan dan tokoh-tokoh dari komunitas budaya dan ilmiah . Namun, begitu Solusi Akhir Hitler menjadi kebijakan resmi Nazi, Auschwitz dianggap sebagai lokasi kamp kematian yang ideal. Untuk satu hal, itu terletak di dekat pusat semua negara yang diduduki Jerman di benua Eropa. Di sisi lain, lokasinya dekat dengan rangkaian jalur rel yang digunakan untuk mengangkut tahanan ke jaringan kamp Nazi.

Namun, tidak semua yang tiba di Auschwitz langsung dimusnahkan. Mereka yang dianggap layak bekerja dipekerjakan sebagai buruh budak dalam produksi amunisi, karet sintetis, dan produk lain yang dianggap penting bagi upaya Jerman dalam Perang Dunia II.

Auschwitz dan Subdivisinya

Pada puncak operasinya, Auschwitz terdiri dari beberapa divisi. Kamp asli, yang dikenal sebagai Auschwitz I, menampung antara 15.000 dan 20.000 tahanan politik. Mereka yang memasuki gerbang utamanya disambut dengan tulisan yang terkenal dan ironis: "Arbeit Macht Frei," atau "Bekerja Membuat Anda Bebas."

Auschwitz II, terletak di desa Birkenau, atau Brzezinka, dibangun pada tahun 1941 atas perintah Heinrich Himmler (1900-45), komandan “Schutzstaffel” (atau Pasukan Penjaga/Perlindungan Terpilih, lebih dikenal sebagai SS) , yang mengoperasikan semua kamp konsentrasi dan kamp kematian Nazi. Birkenau, fasilitas Auschwitz terbesar, dapat menampung sekitar 90.000 tahanan.

Itu juga menampung sekelompok pemandian di mana banyak orang mati dengan gas beracun, dan oven krematorium tempat mayat dibakar. Mayoritas korban Auschwitz meninggal di Birkenau. Lebih dari 40 fasilitas yang lebih kecil, yang disebut subkamp, ​​tersebar di lanskap dan berfungsi sebagai kamp kerja paksa. Subkamp terbesar ini, Monowitz, juga dikenal sebagai Auschwitz III, mulai beroperasi pada tahun 1942 dan menampung sekitar 10.000 tahanan.

Hidup dan Mati di Auschwitz

Pada pertengahan 1942, mayoritas dari mereka yang dikirim oleh Nazi ke Auschwitz adalah orang Yahudi. Setibanya di kamp, ​​para tahanan diperiksa oleh dokter Nazi. Para tahanan yang dianggap tidak layak untuk bekerja, termasuk anak-anak, orang tua, wanita hamil dan orang sakit, segera diperintahkan untuk mandi. Namun, pemandian tempat mereka berbaris adalah kamar gas yang disamarkan. Begitu masuk, para tahanan terkena gas beracun Zyklon-B. Orang-orang yang ditandai sebagai tidak layak untuk bekerja tidak pernah secara resmi terdaftar sebagai narapidana Auschwitz. Karena alasan ini, tidak mungkin menghitung jumlah nyawa yang hilang di kamp.

Bagi para tahanan yang awalnya melarikan diri dari kamar gas, jumlah yang tidak ditentukan meninggal karena terlalu banyak bekerja, penyakit, kekurangan gizi atau perjuangan sehari-hari untuk bertahan hidup dalam kondisi kehidupan yang brutal. Eksekusi sewenang-wenang, penyiksaan dan pembalasan terjadi setiap hari di depan tahanan lainnya.

Beberapa tahanan Auschwitz menjadi sasaran eksperimen medis yang tidak manusiawi. Pelaku utama penelitian biadab ini adalah Josef Mengele (1911-79), seorang dokter Jerman yang mulai bekerja di Auschwitz pada tahun 1943. Mengele, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai “Malaikat Maut”, melakukan serangkaian eksperimen terhadap para tahanan. Misalnya, dalam upaya mempelajari warna mata, ia menyuntikkan serum ke dalam bola mata puluhan anak, menyebabkan rasa sakit yang luar biasa. Dia juga menyuntikkan kloroform ke jantung kembar untuk menentukan apakah kedua saudara kandung akan mati pada waktu yang sama dan dengan cara yang sama.

BACA LEBIH BANYAK: Kengerian Auschwitz: Angka di Balik Kamp Konsentrasi Paling Mematikan PD II

Pembebasan Auschwitz: 1945

Menjelang akhir tahun 1944 dan kekalahan Nazi Jerman oleh pasukan Sekutu tampaknya pasti, para komandan Auschwitz mulai menghancurkan bukti kengerian yang terjadi di sana. Bangunan dirobohkan, diledakkan atau dibakar, dan catatan dihancurkan.

Pada Januari 1945, ketika tentara Soviet memasuki Krakow, Jerman memerintahkan agar Auschwitz ditinggalkan. Sebelum akhir bulan, dalam apa yang kemudian dikenal sebagai pawai kematian Auschwitz, diperkirakan 60.000 tahanan, ditemani oleh penjaga Nazi, meninggalkan kamp dan dipaksa untuk berbaris ke kota Gliwice atau Wodzislaw di Polandia, sekitar 30 mil jauhnya. . Tahanan yang tak terhitung jumlahnya meninggal selama proses ini; mereka yang berhasil mencapai lokasi dikirim dengan kereta api ke kamp konsentrasi di Jerman.

Ketika tentara Soviet memasuki Auschwitz pada 27 Januari, mereka menemukan sekitar 7.600 tahanan sakit atau kurus yang ditinggalkan di balik kawat berduri. Pembebas juga menemukan gundukan mayat, ratusan ribu potong pakaian dan sepasang sepatu dan tujuh ton rambut manusia yang telah dicukur dari para tahanan sebelum mereka dilikuidasi. Menurut beberapa perkiraan, antara 1,1 juta hingga 1,5 juta orang, sebagian besar dari mereka adalah orang Yahudi, meninggal di Auschwitz selama bertahun-tahun beroperasi. Diperkirakan 70.000 hingga 80.000 orang Polandia tewas di kamp tersebut, bersama dengan 19.000 hingga 20.000 orang Roma dan sejumlah kecil tawanan perang Soviet dan individu lainnya.

BACA LEBIH BANYAK: Pembebasan Auschwitz yang Mengejutkan: Soviet 'Tidak Tahu Apa-apa' Saat Mendekat

Auschwitz Hari Ini

Hari ini, Auschwitz terbuka untuk umum sebagai Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. Ini menceritakan kisah situs pembunuhan massal terbesar dalam sejarah dan bertindak sebagai pengingat kengerian genosida.
















Foto Auschwitz Diambil Setelah Pembebasannya Mengungkapkan Kekejaman Kamp


Sejarah mengerikan Auschwitz

Hari Peringatan Holocaust memperingati kejahatan Nazi di seluruh dunia. Pada 27 Januari 1945, tentara Soviet membebaskan para tahanan di Auschwitz. Apa yang mereka temukan tidak terduga.

Lebih dari 25 juta orang telah mengunjungi situs peringatan di bekas kamp konsentrasi Auschwitz di Polandia selatan sejak dibuka pada tahun 1947. Sekarang, setiap tahun, situs tersebut menyambut lebih dari 2 juta pengunjung dari seluruh dunia.

Terletak sekitar 50 kilometer (30 mil) barat Krakow, di gerbang kota kecil Oswiecim, bekas kompleks kamp konsentrasi Nazi menempati area yang sangat luas hingga tahun 1945. Saat ini terdapat museum dan peringatan negara di situs tersebut.

Selain kamp pemusnahan pusat Nazi, kompleks ini terdiri dari tiga kamp utama dan kamp sub dan eksternal dengan ukuran berbeda. Itu adalah mesin pembunuh industri dengan proporsi yang tak terbayangkan. Memorial dan Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau yang dapat dikunjungi saat ini seluas 191 hektar (472 hektar).

Mengingat pembunuhan massal tetap menjadi tanggung jawab kita untuk masa depan

Berikut beberapa fakta dan tokoh sejarah terkait istilah "Auschwitz":

1. Kota Oswiecim (Auschwitz)

Jauh sebelum namanya dikenal melalui kamp konsentrasi Jerman, Auschwitz (Polandia: Oświęcim) adalah kota kecil dengan sejarah yang penting.

Nama kota itu, Oswiecim, pertama kali disebutkan sekitar tahun 1200. Pada tahun 1348 kota ini dimasukkan ke dalam Kekaisaran Romawi Suci, dan bahasa Jerman menjadi bahasa resmi.

Kadang-kadang milik wilayah Austria di waktu lain, Kadipaten Auschwitz adalah bagian dari Kerajaan Bohemia atau Kerajaan Prusia — dan kemudian sekali lagi dikembalikan ke Kerajaan Polandia. Dan setelah Perang Dunia I, itu adalah bagian dari negara Polandia yang baru didirikan.

Setelah kota itu terhubung ke jalur kereta api pada tahun 1900, ekonomi Oswiecim berkembang pesat. Akomodasi dibutuhkan bagi banyak pekerja musiman dan migran di sekitar kawasan industri di Upper Silesia dan Bohemia. Mereka ditempatkan di rumah-rumah bata dan barak kayu yang baru dibangun. Bangunan-bangunan itu kemudian menjadi dasar kamp konsentrasi Sosialis Nasional Auschwitz.

Tak lama setelah dimulainya Perang Dunia II pada September 1939, Oswiecim ditaklukkan oleh Wehrmacht Jerman dan dianeksasi oleh Kekaisaran Jerman. Pada tahun 1940, di bawah kepemimpinan Heinrich Himmler, SS dapat dengan cepat dan tanpa banyak pekerjaan konstruksi mengubah area kamp menjadi kamp konsentrasi, kamp utama Auschwitz I. Area yang luas dari kamp pemusnahan Auschwitz-Birkenau (Auschwitz II), yang dikenal melalui foto udara bersejarah Angkatan Udara AS dan Angkatan Udara Kerajaan Inggris, merupakan tambahan di kemudian hari.

2. Penduduk Yahudi

Sebelum Perang Dunia Kedua, sekitar setengah dari 14.000 penduduk Oswiecim adalah orang Yahudi. Komunitas Yahudi telah berkembang pesat karena imigrasi jumlah etnis Jerman di kota itu sangat kecil. Ini berubah secara tiba-tiba setelah serangan oleh Wehrmacht Hitler di Polandia pada 1 September 1939 dan pendudukan militer negara itu.

Kebijakan "pembersihan" rasial Nazi membuat penduduk Yahudi mengungsi untuk memberi jalan bagi orang Jerman yang dimukimkan kembali. Orang-orang Yahudi Polandia yang tersisa pada awalnya tinggal bersama dan terisolasi dari penduduk lainnya di kota tua Oświęcim. Sejak tahun 1940 dan seterusnya, banyak yang dipaksa bekerja sebagai pekerja budak untuk SS, di tempat yang akan menjadi kamp konsentrasi.

3. Pusat strategis

Kota Oswiecim kebetulan terletak di situs penting yang strategis bagi Nazi, karena stasiun kereta apinya berada di persimpangan jalur dari Praha, Wina, Berlin, Warsawa, dan kawasan industri utara Silesia — kondisi sempurna untuk transportasi massal orang dari apa yang disebut "Altreich," atau wilayah Jerman di dalam perbatasan tahun 1937, seperti yang direncanakan oleh SS dan otoritas Kantor Keamanan Utama Reich di Berlin.

Gambaran umum dari kompleks kamp konsentrasi yang luas

Letnan Kolonel SS Adolf Eichmann ditugaskan untuk mendeportasi orang ke kamp-kamp di wilayah timur ini. Dia telah menyiapkan berkas-berkas untuk "Konferensi Wannsee" yang diadakan pada 20 Januari 1942. Para pejabat tinggi SS dan partai Nazi bertemu di vila Wannsee untuk sebuah pertemuan yang diprakarsai oleh kepala Kantor Keamanan Utama Reich, Reinhard Heydrich. Setelah hanya 90 menit, mereka telah menentukan rencana pembunuhan mereka untuk "solusi akhir untuk pertanyaan Yahudi Eropa." Semua negara dari mana orang Yahudi harus dideportasi dengan kereta api tercantum dalam risalah pertemuan.

4. Sistem kamp konsentrasi

Setelah Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, Flossenbürg, Mauthausen dan kamp wanita Ravensbrück, Auschwitz adalah kamp konsentrasi ketujuh yang secara bertahap didirikan oleh Nazi — dan sejauh ini yang terbesar. Lokasi di pinggiran kota kecil Oświęcim di Polandia direncanakan sebagai lokasi kamp dengan ukuran berbeda. Selain kamp utama (Auschwitz I), dan kamp pemusnahan besar Birkenau (Auschwitz II), di mana krematorium berada, ada kamp eksternal yang lebih kecil serta kamp kerja Buna dan Monowitz (Auschwitz III).

Sejalan dengan keputusan yang diambil pada Konferensi Wannsee, Auschwitz diubah menjadi pabrik kematian sistematis dengan proporsi yang tak terbayangkan pada musim semi tahun 1942. Sebagai komandan SS dari kamp konsentrasi dan pemusnahan Auschwitz, Rudolf Höss mengelola para penjaga dan seluruh administrasi kamp konsentrasi dan pemusnahan Auschwitz. kamp dan bertanggung jawab atas pelaksanaan teknis pembunuhan massal, sampai penggantinya pada November 1943.

Senjata ampuh: Satu kaleng Zyklon B sudah cukup untuk membunuh lebih dari 1.000 orang

5. Zona pengaruh SS

Pada musim semi 1942, 2.000 penjaga keamanan SS telah dipekerjakan di Auschwitz. Awalnya hanya warga kekaisaran Jerman yang bekerja di kamp konsentrasi, tetapi kemudian, "Volksdeutsche" — warga negara dari negara lain — juga termasuk di antara staf tersebut.

Pada akhir musim panas tahun 1944, lebih dari 4.000 anggota SS bertugas di Auschwitz. Ini juga termasuk penjaga kamp, ​​juru ketik atau perawat yang dipekerjakan oleh SS dan tidak memakai lencana pangkat.

SS juga mengendalikan perusahaan-perusahaan industri dan pengrajin lokal yang, yang mendapat keuntungan dari perluasan kamp, ​​telah menetap di wilayah tersebut. Pemukiman SS yang disebut berkembang di luar perbatasan kamp, ​​menawarkan segala macam fasilitas bagi penghuninya.

6. Pabrik kematian

Pada musim semi 1943, oven tambahan dioperasikan di kompleks Auschwitz-Birkenau yang diperluas. SS menguji fungsi mereka pada sekelompok tahanan yang diangkut: Setelah kematian mereka yang menyiksa di kamar gas yang diisi dengan Zyklon B, tubuh 1.100 pria, wanita dan anak-anak dibakar, dan abu mereka ditebarkan di danau-danau sekitarnya — sama seperti sisa-sisa tahanan kamp konsentrasi dan orang-orang yang dideportasi lainnya akan dibunuh.

Kolam ini berisi abu dari puluhan ribu orang yang terbunuh

Manajer konstruksi kamp, ​​Letnan Kolonel SS Karl Bischoff, melaporkan ke Berlin: "Mulai sekarang, total 4.756 mayat dapat dikremasi dalam waktu 24 jam." Jalur kereta api tiga jalur dibangun di Birkenau dengan tujuan mempercepat pemilihan orang yang dideportasi pada saat kedatangan mereka. Itu masih bisa dilihat di situs peringatan hari ini. Lebih dari dua pertiga dari pendatang baru tidak terdaftar sebagai tahanan dan dikirim ke kamar gas dan langsung mati setelah tiba.

Pengangkutan terakhir orang-orang Yahudi dari seluruh Eropa tiba di Auschwitz pada akhir musim gugur tahun 1944. Di antara orang-orang yang dideportasi dari Belanda yang diduduki adalah Anne Frank yang berusia 15 tahun. Buku hariannya, yang diawetkan secara kebetulan, berfungsi sebagai dokumen abadi tentang penganiayaan orang Yahudi oleh Nazi.

7. Jumlah korban

Perhitungan jumlah korban Holocaust yang meninggal di Auschwitz masih bervariasi, karena rincian baru masih terungkap setiap tahun melalui arsip sejarah dan keluarga.

Meskipun kemungkinan besar kita tidak akan pernah tahu jumlah pasti korban, sekarang diperkirakan lebih dari 5 juta orang dideportasi ke kamp konsentrasi Nazi. Hanya sangat sedikit yang selamat.

'Judenrampe' yang terkenal, platform tempat konvoi orang Yahudi tiba dan tempat para tahanan dipilih

Nama-nama lebih dari 60% dari 400.000 tahanan yang terdaftar di bekas kamp kematian Nazi Jerman Auschwitz telah ditetapkan, menurut sebuah proyek penelitian yang ditugaskan oleh Auschwitz Memorial yang diterbitkan pada Desember 2019.

Tidak termasuk dalam database adalah lebih dari 900.000 orang Yahudi dideportasi dalam transportasi massal dari wilayah Eropa yang diduduki oleh Jerman, yang dibunuh di kamar gas segera setelah tiba di kamp tanpa didaftarkan. Namun identitas mereka dapat ditentukan melalui daftar deportasi yang disimpan dengan cermat.

Setibanya mereka di Auschwitz-Birkenau, satu-satunya yang didaftarkan adalah mereka yang memiliki nomor tahanan bertato, mereka yang dianggap cukup sehat untuk digunakan sebagai buruh di kamp pada platform seleksi, yang disebut "Judenrampe." Kebanyakan orang, terutama orang tua, orang sakit, wanita dan anak kecil, secara langsung dan tanpa registrasi terlebih dahulu dipaksa masuk ke kamar gas dan dibunuh.

Menurut jumlah Auschwitz Memorial, lebih dari 1,1 juta orang tewas di kamp pemusnahan Auschwitz-Birkenau. Sembilan puluh persen dari korban adalah orang Yahudi — terutama dari Hongaria, Polandia, Italia, Belgia, Prancis, Belanda, Yunani, Kroasia, Uni Soviet, Austria, dan Jerman. Korban pembunuhan Nazi lainnya yang ditargetkan termasuk Sinti dan Roma, homoseksual, Katolik, Saksi-Saksi Yehuwa dan orang cacat, serta lawan politik.

Buku harian seorang penyintas Auschwitz


Auschwitz-Birkenau: Evolusi Tato di Kompleks Kamp Konsentrasi Auschwitz

Bagi banyak orang, garis biru kabur dari nomor seri di lengan bawah adalah gambaran Holocaust yang tak terhapuskan. Tato para penyintas telah menjadi simbol kebrutalan total dan kamp konsentrasi serta upaya Nazi untuk tidak memanusiakan korbannya. Tato juga merupakan bukti ketangguhan mereka yang menyandangnya. Namun terlepas dari pentingnya tato, sebagai wasiat, simbol, dan artefak sejarah, sedikit beasiswa yang dikhususkan untuk subjek ini. Hampir tidak ada dokumen periode resmi yang berkaitan dengan praktik yang kita ketahui berasal dari bukti anekdot yang terkandung dalam catatan kamp dan laporan mereka yang berada di kamp.

Kompleks Kamp Konsentrasi Auschwitz (termasuk Auschwitz 1, AuschwitzBirkenau, dan Monowitz) adalah satu-satunya lokasi di mana para tahanan ditato secara sistematis selama Holocaust. Sebelum pembuatan tato, beberapa cara untuk mengidentifikasi narapidana, baik berdasarkan jumlah maupun kategori, telah diterapkan nomor urut sebagai metode utama. Ketika mereka tiba di kamp, ​​​​para tahanan diberikan nomor seri yang kemudian dijahit ke seragam penjara mereka. Nomor urut ini paling sering disertai dengan berbagai bentuk, simbol atau huruf yang mengidentifikasi status, kebangsaan, atau agama narapidana. Praktek ini berlanjut bahkan setelah tato diperkenalkan.

Urutan yang sesuai dengan nomor seri yang dikeluarkan berkembang dari waktu ke waktu. Skema penomoran dibagi menjadi "reguler," seri AU, Z, EH, A, dan B'. Seri "reguler" terdiri dari rangkaian numerik berurutan yang digunakan, pada fase awal kamp konsentrasi Auschwitz, untuk mengidentifikasi orang Polandia, Yahudi, dan sebagian besar tahanan lainnya (semuanya laki-laki). Seri ini digunakan dari Mei 1940-Januari 1945, meskipun populasi yang diidentifikasi berevolusi dari waktu ke waktu. Setelah pengenalan kategori tahanan lain ke dalam kamp, ​​skema penomoran menjadi lebih kompleks. Seri "AU" menunjukkan tawanan perang Soviet, sedangkan seri "Z" (dengan "Z" adalah singkatan dari kata Jerman untuk Gipsi, Zigeuner) merujuk pada Romawi. Huruf-huruf pengidentifikasi ini mendahului nomor seri tato setelah dilembagakan. "EH" tahanan yang ditunjuk yang telah dikirim untuk "pendidikan ulang" (Erziehungshäftlinge). Para tahanan ini menolak untuk bekerja di kerja paksa atau dituduh bekerja dengan cara yang tidak memuaskan. Mereka dikirim ke kamp konsentrasi atau "Kamp Pendidikan Buruh" khusus (Arbeitserziehungslager) untuk jangka waktu tertentu tidak lebih dari 56 hari. Awalnya nomor seri mereka milik seri reguler pada bulan Februari 1942 seri terpisah dilembagakan untuk kategori EH dan nomor registrasi lama mereka dipindahkan.¹

Wanita tidak diberi nomor dari seri yang sama dengan pria. Tahanan wanita pertama tiba pada bulan Maret 1942, mereka diberi nomor dalam seri "biasa" yang baru, sama seperti para pria. Ketika jumlah tahanan wanita yang dibawa ke kamp meningkat, seri nomor baru dimulai di masing-masing kategori.

Pada Mei 1944, nomor seri "A" dan seri "B" pertama kali dikeluarkan untuk tahanan Yahudi, dimulai dengan pria pada 13 Mei dan wanita pada 16 Mei. Seri "A" harus diselesaikan dengan 20.000 namun kesalahan menyebabkan wanita diberi nomor 25.378 sebelum seri "B" dimulai. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengerjakan seluruh alfabet dengan 20.000 angka yang dikeluarkan di setiap seri huruf. Di setiap seri, pria dan wanita memiliki seri numerik mereka sendiri yang terpisah, seolah-olah dimulai dengan nomor 1.

Namun, ada banyak pengecualian untuk aturan ini dan informasi yang masih ada mengenai nomor seri hanyalah salah satu alat untuk menentukan jumlah tahanan yang datang melalui kompleks kamp Auschwitz. Tahanan yang dipilih untuk dimusnahkan segera hampir tidak pernah diberi nomor, dan banyak tahanan perang dan polisi Soviet (Polizeihäftlinge)* dikirim dari penjara Myslowice karena kepadatan penduduk² tidak terdaftar.

Secara umum diterima bahwa tato tawanan dimulai dengan masuknya tawanan perang Soviet ke Auschwitz pada tahun 1941. Sekitar 12.000 tawanan perang Soviet dibawa dan didaftarkan di kompleks kamp konsentrasi Auschwitz antara tahun 1941-1945 sebagian besar tiba pada Oktober 1941 dari Stalag 308 di Neuhammer. Mereka mempertahankan seragam tentara mereka, yang dicat dengan garis dan huruf SU (Uni Soviet) dengan cat minyak. Pada bulan November, sebuah komisi khusus yang dipimpin oleh kepala Kattowitz Gestapo, Dr. Rudolf Mildner, datang ke Auschwitz. Mengikuti pedoman perintah operasional tanggal 17 Juli 1941, tawanan perang Soviet dibagi menjadi kelompok-kelompok yang digambarkan sebagai "Komunis fanatik", "tersangka secara politis", ""tidak dicurigai secara politis" atau "cocok untuk pendidikan ulang". 300 "Komunis fanatik.³ Mereka yang ditunjuk seperti itu ditato dengan menggunakan pelat logam dengan jarum yang dapat dipertukarkan yang menempel padanya. Pelat itu ditempelkan ke daging di sisi kiri dada mereka dan kemudian pewarna dioleskan ke luka. Tato itu bertuliskan AU (untuk Auschwitz) diikuti dengan angka. Tawanan perang Soviet lainnya memiliki nomor Identifikasi yang tertulis di dada mereka dengan tinta yang tidak terhapuskan, tetapi ini terlalu cepat hilang. 4 Jadi tato sebagian besar tawanan perang Soviet akhirnya diterapkan. Bukti tidak langsung menunjukkan bahwa tato tahanan tidak diterapkan secara sistematis di Auschwitz pada tahun 1941.

Pada 11 November 1941, hari libur nasional Polandia, otoritas kamp mengeksekusi 151 tahanan di Auschwitz. Sebelum eksekusi, nomor tahanan ditulis di dadanya (jika dia akan ditembak dari jarak dekat) atau di kakinya (jika dia akan ditembak oleh regu tembak). Rumah sakit kamp yang disebut juga telah mengadopsi praktik menulis nomor tahanan di dadanya. 5

Ketika jumlah tahanan yang dibawa ke kompleks Auschwitz yang berkembang meningkat, demikian pula tingkat kematiannya. Tetapi jika mayat dipisahkan dari seragamnya, identifikasi menjadi mustahil. Dengan seringnya ratusan tahanan meninggal setiap hari, metode identifikasi lain diperlukan. Di Birkenau, metode yang digunakan untuk menato tawanan perang Soviet diterapkan untuk tawanan kurus yang kematiannya sudah dekat. Tato itu kemudian dibuat dengan pena dan tinta di lengan kiri atas. Pada tahun 1942, orang-orang Yahudi telah menjadi kelompok dominan yang diwakili di Auschwitz. Mereka ditato berdasarkan angka dalam seri reguler sampai tahun 1944 nomor mereka didahului dengan segitiga, kemungkinan besar untuk mengidentifikasi mereka sebagai orang Yahudi.

Pada musim semi tahun 1943 sebagian besar tahanan ditato, bahkan mereka yang telah terdaftar sebelumnya. Namun, ada pengecualian penting. Etnis Jerman, tahanan pendidikan ulang, tahanan polisi, dan narapidana yang dipilih untuk dimusnahkan segera tidak ditato.

Meskipun tidak dapat ditentukan secara pasti, tampaknya tato dilakukan terutama untuk memudahkan identifikasi apakah dalam kasus kematian atau melarikan diri dari praktik yang terus berlanjut hingga hari-hari terakhir Auschwitz.

*Polizeihäftlinge adalah istilah umum yang dapat digunakan untuk menunjukkan siapa saja yang ditangkap oleh Gestapo. Tahanan ini mungkin disebut penjahat karir (Befristeter Vorbeugungshäftlinge, juga dikenal dalam jargon kamp sebagai Berufsverbrecher), tahanan pelindung (Schutzhäfilinge), atau tahanan pendidikan ulang (Erziehungshäftlinge).
¹Piper, Franciszek dan Teresa ¥wiebocka, eds. (trans. Douglas Selvage), Kamp Kematian Nazi Auschwitz (O¥wiecim Museum Negara AuschwitzBirkenau di Oswiecim, 1996), hlm. 62.
²lbid ., hal. 66.
³Czech, Danuta, Auschwitz Chronicle 19391945 (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1990), hlm. 102.
4 Klarsfeld, Serge, ed., Les matricules tatoues des camps d'AuschwitzBirkenau (Yayasan Beate Klarsfeld), hlm. 27.
5 Council for the Protection of Monuments of Struggle and Martyrdom (terjemahan lain W. M. Taylor), Auschwitz: Nazi Extermination Camp (Warsaw: Interpress, 1985), hlm. 54.

Unduh aplikasi seluler kami untuk akses saat bepergian ke Perpustakaan Virtual Yahudi


Auschwitz-Birkenau: Sejarah & Tinjauan

Auschwitz-Birkenau adalah istilah umum untuk jaringan kamp konsentrasi dan kerja paksa Nazi, yang didirikan di dekat kota Oswiecim, Polandia. Bersama-sama kompleks ini adalah yang terbesar dari semua kamp kematian Nazi di seluruh Eropa dan dapat menampung lebih dari 150.000 narapidana pada waktu tertentu.

Kompleks, yang dibagi menjadi tiga wilayah utama, didirikan oleh Nazi pada tahun 1940 dan digunakan sampai pembebasan Sekutu pada tahun 1945. Sejarawan dan analis memperkirakan jumlah orang yang dibunuh di Auschwitz antara 2,1 juta hingga 4 juta, di antaranya sebagian besar adalah orang Yahudi. Kebanyakan tahanan yang ditahan di Auschwitz dibunuh di kamar gas meskipun banyak yang meninggal karena kelaparan, kerja paksa, penyakit, regu tembak, dan eksperimen medis yang keji.

Saat ini, kata Auschwitz telah menjadi sinonim dengan teror, genosida, dan Holocaust. Situs tersebut, meskipun sebagian dihancurkan oleh Nazi yang mundur pada tahun 1945, telah ditetapkan sebagai museum untuk membantu generasi mendatang memahami kekejaman yang dilakukan di dalam pagarnya. Pada tahun 2011, lebih dari 30 juta orang telah mengunjungi kamp tersebut, dan selama tahun 2014 tercatat 1,5 juta orang mengunjungi kompleks dan museum Auschwitz. Juru bicara museum mengatakan bahwa dari Januari hingga April 2015, lebih dari 250.000 orang mengunjungi Auschwitz, menandai peningkatan 40% dari jumlah yang sudah besar dari tahun sebelumnya. Pihak berwenang yang bertanggung jawab atas situs tersebut mulai mendesak orang-orang untuk memesan kunjungan mereka ke Auschwitz secara online sebelumnya untuk mencegah mereka menolak orang.

Pada bulan Juni 2016, museum Auschwitz-Birkenau di kota Oswiecim, Polandia, menemukan kembali lebih dari 16.000 barang pribadi milik para korban Auschwitz-Birkenau yang telah hilang pada tahun 1968. Barang-barang tersebut awalnya ditemukan pada tahun 1967 oleh para arkeolog yang menggali situs kamp konsentrasi , dan ditempatkan di 48 kotak kardus di Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Polandia di Warsawa sebelum hilang karena rezim komunis anti-Semit yang berkuasa pada tahun 1968.

Mendirikan Perkemahan

Pada April 1940, Rudolph Höss, yang menjadi komandan pertama Auschwitz, mengidentifikasi kota Silesia Oswiecim di Polandia sebagai lokasi yang memungkinkan untuk kamp konsentrasi. Awalnya, kamp itu dimaksudkan untuk mengintimidasi orang Polandia untuk mencegah mereka memprotes pemerintahan Jerman dan berfungsi sebagai penjara bagi mereka yang melawan. Itu juga dianggap sebagai landasan kebijakan untuk menjajah kembali Silesia Atas, yang pernah menjadi wilayah Jerman, dengan &ldquopure Aryans.&rdquo Ketika rencana kamp disetujui, Nazi&rsquos mengubah nama daerah tersebut menjadi Auschwitz.

Pada tanggal 27 April 1940, Heinrich Himmler memerintahkan pembangunan kamp tersebut.

Pada bulan Mei 1940, orang Polandia diusir dari sekitar barak (kebanyakan dari mereka dieksekusi), dan kru kerja yang terdiri dari tahanan kamp konsentrasi dikirim dari Sachsenhausen. 300 orang Yahudi lainnya dari komunitas besar Yahudi di Oswiecim juga dipaksa bekerja.

Pada tanggal 20 Mei 1940, tahanan pertama yang mengangkut tahanan, hampir semua warga sipil Polandia, tiba dan administrasi serta staf SS dibentuk. Pada tanggal 1 Maret 1941, populasi kamp adalah 10.900. Cukup cepat, kamp tersebut mengembangkan reputasi untuk penyiksaan dan penembakan massal.


Mayat di blok Auschwitz

Perluasan Auschwitz

Pada bulan Maret 1941, Himmler mengunjungi Auschwitz dan memerintahkan perluasannya untuk menahan 30.000 tahanan. Lokasi kamp, ​​praktis di pusat Eropa yang diduduki Jerman, dan koneksi transportasi yang nyaman serta kedekatannya dengan jalur kereta api adalah pemikiran utama di balik rencana Nazi untuk memperbesar Auschwitz dan mulai mendeportasi orang ke sini dari seluruh Eropa.

Saat ini hanya kamp utama, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Auschwitz I, yang telah didirikan. Himmler memerintahkan pembangunan kamp kedua untuk 100.000 narapidana di lokasi desa Brzezinka, kira-kira dua mil dari kamp utama. Kamp kedua ini, sekarang dikenal sebagai Birkenau atau Auschwitz II, awalnya dimaksudkan untuk diisi dengan tawanan perang Rusia yang ditangkap yang akan menyediakan tenaga kerja budak untuk membangun SS &ldquoutopia&rdquo di Silesia Atas. Raksasa kimia I G Farben menyatakan minatnya untuk memanfaatkan tenaga kerja ini, dan pekerjaan konstruksi ekstensif dimulai pada Oktober 1941 dalam kondisi yang mengerikan dan dengan banyak korban jiwa. Sekitar 10.000 tawanan perang Rusia tewas dalam proses ini. Sebagian besar aparat pemusnah massal akhirnya dibangun di kamp Birkenau dan sebagian besar korban dibunuh di sini.

SS-Sturmbannfuhrer Fritz Hartjenstein was commandant of Birkenau from November 22, 1943, until May 8, 1944. He was followed by SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Josef Kramer from May 8, 1944, until November 25, 1944.

More than 40 sub-camps, exploiting the prisoners as slave laborers, were also founded, mainly as various sorts of German industrial plants and farms, between 1942 and 1944. The largest of them was called Buna (Monowitz, with ten thousand prisoners) and was opened by the camp administration in 1942 on the grounds of the Buna-Werke synthetic rubber and fuel plant, six kilometers from the Auschwitz camp. The factory was built during the war by the German IG Farbenindustrie cartel, and the SS supplied prisoner labor. On November 1943, the Buna sub-camp became the seat of the commandant (SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Heinrich Schwarz) of the third part of the camp, Auschwitz III, to which some other Auschwitz sub-camps were subordinated.

The Germans isolated all the camps and sub-camps from the outside world and surrounded them with barbed wire fencing. All contact with the outside world was forbidden. However, the area administered by the commandant and patrolled by the SS camp garrison went beyond the grounds enclosed by barbed wire. It included an additional area of approximately 40 square kilometers (the so-called &ldquoInteressengebiet&rdquo - the interest zone), which lay around the Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau camps.

With the additions, the main camp population grew from 18,000 in December 1942 to more than 30,000 in March 1943.

In March 1942, a women&rsquos camp was established at Auschwitz with 6,000 inmates and in August it was moved to Birkenau. By January 1944, 27,000 women were living in Birkenau, in section B1a, in separated quarters.

In February 1943, a section for Gypsies was also established at Birkenau, called camp BIIe, and in September 1943 an area was set aside for Czech Jews deported from Theresienstadt, and was so-called the &ldquoFamily Camp,&rdquo or BIIb.

The gas chambers and crematoria at Birkenau were opened in March 1943.

Beginning Stages of the Final Solution

Beginning in 1942, Auschwitz began to function in a way different than its original intent.

By late 1941, Himmler had briefed Commandant Höss about the &ldquoFinal Solution&ldquo and by the following year Auschwitz-Birkenau became the center of the mass destruction of the European Jews.

Before beginning Jewish exterminations, though, the Nazi&rsquos used the Soviet POWs at the Auschwitz camp in trials of the poison gas Zyklon-B, produced by the German company &ldquoDegesch&rdquo (Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Schädlingsbekämpfung), which was marked as the best way to kill many people at once. The POWs were gassed in underground cells in Block 11, the so called &ldquoDeath Block,&rdquo and following these trials, one gas chamber was setup just outside the main camp and two temporary gas chambers were opened at Birkenau.

The Nazis marked all the Jews living in Europe for total extermination, regardless of their age, sex, occupation, citizenship, or political views. They were killed for one reason, and one reason alone &ndash because they were Jews. At Auschwitz-Birkenau, the &ldquoFinal Solution&ldquo was pursued with Nazi-like efficiency:

When a train carrying Jewish prisoners arrived &ldquoselections&rdquo would be conducted on the railroad platform, or ramp. Newly arrived persons classified by the SS physicians as unfit for labor were sent to the gas chambers: these included the ill, the elderly, pregnant women and children. In most cases, 70-75% of each transport was sent to immediate death. These people were not entered in the camp records that is, they received no serial numbers and were not registered, and therefore it is possible only to estimate the total number of victims.

Those deemed fit enough for slave labor were then immediately registered, tattooed with a serial number, undressed, deloused, had their body hair shaven off, showered while their clothes were disinfected with Zyklon-B gas, and entered the camp under the infamous gateway inscribed &ldquoArbeit Macht Frei&rdquo (&ldquoLabor will set you free&rdquo). Of approximately 2.5 million people who were deported to Auschwitz, 405,000 were given prisoner status and serial numbers. Of these, approximately 50% were Jews and 50% were Poles and other nationalities.

Camp Reorganization & Worsening Conditions

In Autumn 1943, the camp administration was reorganized following a corruption scandal. Höss, who served as commandant from May 4, 1940 until November 10, 1943, was succeeded by SS-Obersturmbannfuhrer Arthur Liebehenschel. The third commandant, SS-Sturmbannfuhrer Richard Baer took over from May 11, 1944, until January 1945.

By the end of 1943, the prisoner population of Auschwitz main camp, Birkenau, Monowitz and other subcamps was over 80,000: 18,437 in the main camp, 49,114 in Birkenau, and 13,288 at Monowitz where I G Farben had its synthetic rubber plant. Up to 50,000 prisoners were scattered around 51 subcamps such as Rajsko, an experimental agricultural station, and Gleiwitz, a coal mine (see The List of the Camps for a complete list of those subcamps). Barracks at Auschwitz designed for 700 prisoners held 1,200.

The situation in the subcamps was often even worse than in the main camps. In mid-1944, Auschwitz was designated a SS-run security area of over 40 square miles. By August 1944, the camp population reached 105,168. The last roll-call on January 18th, 1945, showed 64,000 inmates.

During its history, the prison population of Auschwitz changed composition significantly. At first, its inmates were almost entirely Polish. From April 1940 to March 1942, on about 27,000 inmates, 30 percent were Poles and 57 percent were Jews. From March 1942 to March 1943 of 162,000 inmates, 60 percent were Jews. From May 15 to July 9, 1944, 426,000 Hungarian Jews, the most deported from any country, were sent to Auschwitz

Birkenau Becomes Center of Jewish Extermination


Gas Chamber door at Birkenau
Lebensgefhar (danger of death)

A parallel system to the main camp in Auschwitz began to operate at the Birkenau camp by 1942. The exception, though, was that most &ldquoshowers&rdquo used to delouse the incoming prisoners proved to be gas chambers. At Birkenau, only about 10 percent of Jewish transports were registered, disinfected, shaven and showered in the &ldquocentral sauna&rdquo before being assigned barracks as opposed to being sent directly to the death chambers.

In the spring of 1942, two provisional gas chambers at Birkenau were constructed out of peasant huts, known as the &ldquobunkers.&rdquo

The first &ldquobunker,&rdquo with two sealed rooms, operated from January 1942 to the end of that year. The second, with four airtight rooms, became redundant in the spring of 1943, but remained standing and was used again in the autumn of 1944 when extra &ldquocapacity&rdquo was needed for the murder of Hungarian Jews and the liquidation of the ghettos. The second measured about 1.134 square feet. The victims murdered in the &ldquobunkers&rdquo were first obliged to undress in temporary wooden barracks erected nearby. Their bodies were taken out of the gas chambers and pushed to pits where they were burned in the open.

Between January 1942 and March 1943, 175,000 Jews were gassed to death here, of whom 105,000 were killed from January to March 1943.

Up to this point, though, Auschwitz-Birkenau accounted for &ldquoonly&rdquo 11 percent of the victims of the &ldquoFinal Solution.&rdquo In August 1942, however, construction began on four large-scale gassing facilities. It appears from the plans that the first two gas chambers were adapted from mortuaries which, with the huge crematoria attached to them, were initially intended to cope with mortalities amongst the slave labor force in the camp, now approaching 100,000 and subject to a horrifying death rate. But from the autumn of 1942, it seems clear that the SS planners and civilian contractors were intending to build a mass-murder plant.


Main Gate at Birkenau (circa 1945)

The twin pairs of gas chambers were numbered II and III, and IV and V. The first opened on March 31, 1943, the last on April 4, 1943. The total area of the gas chambers was 2,255 square meters the capacity of these crematoria was 4,420 people. Those selected to die were undressed in the undressing room and then pushed into the gas chambers.

It only took about 20 minutes for all the people inside to die.

In chambers II and III, the killings took place in underground rooms, and the corpses were carried to the five ovens by an electrically operated lift. Before cremation gold teeth and any other valuables, such as rings, were removed from the corpses. In IV and V the gas chambers and ovens were on the same level, but the ovens were so poorly built, and the usage was so great that they repeatedly malfunctioned and had to be abandoned. The corpses were finally burned outside, in the open, as in 1943. Jewish Sonderkommandos worked the crematoria under SS supervision.

Initially the new facilities were &ldquounderutilized.&rdquo From April 1943 to March 1944, &ldquoonly&rdquo 160,000 Jews were killed at Birkenau.

But, in May 1944, a railroad spur line was built right into the camp to accelerate and simplify the handling of the tens of thousands of Hungarian and other Jews deported in the spring and summer of 1944. From then to November 1944, when all the other death camps had been abandoned, Birkenau surpassed all previous records for mass killing. The Hungarian deportations and the liquidation of the remaining Polish ghettos, such as Lodz, resulted in the gassing of 585,000 Jews. This period made Auschwitz-Birkenau into the most notorious killing site of all time.


Liberation of Auschwitz: a hangar containing hundreds of shoes and clothes

Perlawanan

Remarkably, there were instances of individual resistance and collective efforts at fighting back inside Auschwitz. Poles, Communists and other national groups established networks in the main camp. Some Jews assaulted Nazi guards, even at the entrance to the gas chambers. In October 1944, the Sonderkommando crew at crematoria IV revolted and destroyed the crematoria. It was never used again.

Fewer than 200 Jews escaped from the camps. Herman Shine, one of the last survivors to have escaped Auschwitz, died in July 2018. He was born in Berlin to a Polish father and they were arrested in that city in 1939. Along with 1,700 other Polish Jews, they were deported to Sachsenhausen. To survive, Shine claimed to be a roofer and learned how to build roofs before being transferred to Auschwitz in 1942.

While working at an Auschwitz satellite forced labor camp in Gleiwitz, Shine met a Jewish girl named Marianne who worked in the camp and could return to her home at night.

Another prisoner, Max Drimmer, devised an escape plan and brought it to Shine. Thanks to the help of a Polish partisan, they managed to break out of Auschwitz and hide on the Pole&rsquos farm for three months. Later, they hid in the home of Marianne&rsquos family. Both men immigrated to the United States and Shine married Marianne. Their story was told in the documentary, &ldquoEscape from Auschwitz: Portrait of a Friendship.&rdquo

Death March & Allied Liberation

In November of 1944, in the face of the approaching allied Red Army, Himmler ordered gassings to stop and for a &ldquoclean-up&rdquo operation to be put in place to conceal traces of the mass murder and other crimes that they had committed. The Nazi&rsquos destroyed documents and dismantled, burned down or blew up most buildings.

The orders for the final evacuation and liquidation of the camp were issued in mid-January 1945. The Germans left behind in the main Auschwitz camp, Birkenau and in Monowitz about 7,000 sick or incapacitated who they did not expect would live for long the rest, approximately 58,000 people, were evacuated by foot into the depths of the Third Reich.

Those prisoners capable, began forcibly marching just as Soviet soldiers were liberating Cracow, some 60 kilometers from the camp. In marching columns escorted by heavily armed SS guards, these 58,000 men and women prisoners were led out of Auschwitz from January 17-21. Many prisoners lost their lives during this tragic evacuation, known as the Death March.

Lt.-Col. Anatoly Shapiro, a Ukrainian Jew, commanded the Red Army&rsquos 1085 th &lsquoTarnopol&rsquo Rifle Regiment that liberated Auschwitz on January 27, 1945. The soldiers found about 650 corpses inside the barracks and near them &mdash mostly women who died of exhaustion or were shot by the SS the night before. Altogether, the Soviet troops found at least 1,200 emaciated survivors in Auschwitz and another 5,800 at Birkenau. At least 700 children and youth prisoners, including about 500 under 15, were alive when the Soviet soldiers arrived. More than half of these children were Jewish.

The liberators fed the survivors but most could not eat because they were too malnourished. Ultimately, another soldier said the Red Army managed to save 2,819 inmates in Red Army Military Hospital 2962.

The soldiers also found warehouses containing 836,525 items of women clothing, 348,820 items of men clothing, 43,525 pairs of shoes (a total of 110,000 was ultimately discovered) and vast numbers of toothbrushes, glasses and other personal effects. They also found 460 artificial limbs and seven tons of human hair shaved from Jews before they were murdered. The human hairs were used by the company &ldquoAlex Zink&rdquo (located in Bavaria) for confection of cloth. This company was paying the Nazi&rsquos 50 pfennig per kilo of human hair.

Of the 1.3 million people sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau, nearly 1,095,000 were Jews, including 232,000 children (mostly Jews). A total of 1.1 million prisoners, or about 85 percent of people sent to Auschwitz, were murdered in the camp including 960,000 were Jews, 74,000 non-Jewish Poles, 21,000 Roma, and 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war.

Of those who received numbers at Auschwitz-Birkenau, only 65,000 survived. It is estimated that only about 200,000 people who passed through the Auschwitz camps survived. Michael Bornstein was one of the lucky ones. Decades after the war, he learned from Auschwitz documents kept in Israel that he had survived because he was sick, and the Nazis left him behind when they evacuated the camp. He said that he was one of only 52 children under the age of eight who lived.

A total of 673 members of the camp staff were charged with war crimes.

Sumber: The Forgotten Camps.
Memorial and Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Haaretz, (April 22, 2015).
Agencja Gazeta, &ldquoAuschwitz museum recovers thousands of long-lost items after 50 years,&rdquo Reuters (June 8, 2016).
Michael Scotto, After Seeing Himself in Old Newsreel Footage, Manhattan Man Discovers How He Survived Holocaust, Spectrum News, (April 3, 2017).
&ldquoAuschwitz hero,&rdquo Laporan Yerusalem, (February 5, 2018).
&ldquoHerman Shine, one of the last survivors to have escaped Auschwitz, dies at 96,&rdquo JTA, (July 24, 2018).
Natasha Frost, &ldquoHorrors of Auschwitz: The Numbers Behind WWII's Deadliest Concentration Camp,&rdquo History, (January 23, 2020).
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, &ldquoAuschwitz,&rdquo Holocaust Encyclopedia.

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Concentration camp

Editor kami akan meninjau apa yang Anda kirimkan dan menentukan apakah akan merevisi artikel tersebut.

Concentration camp, internment centre for political prisoners and members of national or minority groups who are confined for reasons of state security, exploitation, or punishment, usually by executive decree or military order. Persons are placed in such camps often on the basis of identification with a particular ethnic or political group rather than as individuals and without benefit either of indictment or fair trial. Concentration camps are to be distinguished from prisons interning persons lawfully convicted of civil crimes and from prisoner-of-war camps in which captured military personnel are held under the laws of war. They are also to be distinguished from refugee camps or detention and relocation centres for the temporary accommodation of large numbers of displaced persons.

During war, civilians have been concentrated in camps to prevent them from engaging in guerrilla warfare or providing aid to enemy forces or simply as a means of terrorizing the populace into submission. During the South African War (1899–1902) the British confined noncombatants of the republics of Transvaal and Cape Colony in concentration camps. Another instance of interning noncombatant civilians occurred shortly after the outbreak of hostilities between Japan and the United States (December 7, 1941), when more than 100,000 Japanese and Japanese-Americans on the West Coast were taken into custody and placed in camps in the interior.

Political concentration camps instituted primarily to reinforce the state’s control have been established in various forms under many totalitarian regimes—most extensively in Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. To a considerable extent, the camps served as the special prisons of the secret police. Nazi concentration camps were under the administration of the SS forced-labour camps of the Soviet Union were operated by a succession of organizations beginning in 1917 with the Cheka and ending in the early 1990s with the KGB.

The first German concentration camps were established in 1933 for the confinement of opponents of the Nazi Party—Communists and Social Democrats. Political opposition soon was enlarged to include minority groups, chiefly Jews, but by the end of World War II many Roma, homosexuals, and anti-Nazi civilians from the occupied territories had also been liquidated. After the outbreak of World War II the camp inmates were used as a supplementary labour supply, and such camps mushroomed throughout Europe. Inmates were required to work for their wages in food those unable to work usually died of starvation, and those who did not starve often died of overwork. The most shocking extension of this system was the establishment after 1940 of extermination centres, or “death camps.” They were located primarily in Poland, which Adolf Hitler had selected as the setting for his “final solution” to the “Jewish problem.” The most notorious were Auschwitz, Majdanek, and Treblinka. (Lihat extermination camp.) At some camps, notably Buchenwald, medical experimentation was conducted. New toxins and antitoxins were tried out, new surgical techniques devised, and studies made of the effects of artificially induced diseases, all by experimenting on living human beings.

In the Soviet Union by 1922 there were 23 concentration camps for the incarceration of persons accused of political offenses as well as criminal offenses. Many corrective labour camps were established in northern Russia and Siberia, especially during the First Five-Year Plan, 1928–32, when millions of rich peasants were driven from their farms under the collectivization program. The Stalinist purges of 1936–38 brought additional millions into the camps—said to be essentially institutions of slavery.

The Soviet occupation of eastern Poland in 1939 and the absorption of the Baltic states in 1940 led to the incarceration of large numbers of non-Soviet citizens. Following the outbreak of war with Germany in 1941, the camps received Axis prisoners of war and Soviet nationals accused of collaboration with the enemy. After the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953, many prisoners were released and the number of camps was drastically reduced.Lihat jugaGulag.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray, Editor.


A brief history of Auschwitz

Auschwitz was the most deadly site of the Holocaust and witnessed the largest single mass murder in the history the world. Ahead of the 75th anniversary of the camp’s liberation, expert Laurence Rees explores its history and considers its significance today…

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Published: January 22, 2020 at 5:21 pm

Where was Auschwitz and why was it created?

Auschwitz was in southern Poland, just over 30 miles west of Krakow. It was in an area of Poland that the Germans decided to incorporate into the Reich. As part of this process of ‘Germanization’ they wanted ethnic Germans to populate the area, but because this was a heavily industrialised part of Poland – the major manufacturing centre of Katowice is less than 20 miles to the north west – the Germans needed substantial numbers of Poles to remain, in order work in the factories and coal mines.

The original concentration camp at Auschwitz was designed to strike terror into the hearts of these indigenous Poles. If they caused any trouble for the Germans – or even looked as if they might possibly cause trouble – then they risked being shipped to Auschwitz.

The first prisoners arrived in June 1940, and until well into 1942 the vast majority of inmates at the camp were Polish political prisoners. Though this was not yet a place of mass extermination, huge numbers of these Poles perished in the camp from various kinds of ill treatment – including starvation, beatings and execution. So much so that more than half the 23,000 Poles first sent to Auschwitz were dead within 20 months.

Why was it called Auschwitz?

It was called Auschwitz because that was the German name for the Polish town of Oświęcim, where the camp was built. The original camp – the ‘main’ camp – was established in a group of buildings that had been Polish army barracks, around a horse-breaking yard, not far from the centre of Oświęcim along the bank of the Sola river.

Who was in charge at Auschwitz?

Rudolf Hoess (Höss) was the commandant for most of the time that Auschwitz existed. He was 39 years old when he was first appointed to the job in spring 1940. A committed Nazi, he had been trained at the concentration camp in Dachau, north of Munich. Though utterly heartless when it came to the suffering of the inmates – and responsible for overseeing the murder of more than a million people – his personality was far from the slavering, red-faced caricature of the SS guard. Instead, his demeanor, according to an American lawyer who interrogated him after the war, was that of a “normal person, like a grocery clerk”.

Who was sent to Auschwitz? When did people start being murdered in gas chambers?

Initially, as discussed above, the inmates were mostly Polish political prisoners, but that began to change when Auschwitz started to take Soviet Prisoners after the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Many of these prisoners in the summer of 1941 were commissars – Soviet Political Officers – and they had been sent to the camp to be worked to death. Any commissar captured in combat by the Germans was to be murdered, and those who were not detected as commissars on the front line were subsequently sent to concentration camps like Auschwitz to be killed.

Then, in the autumn of 1941, construction began on a vast new camp, a mile and a half away from Auschwitz main camp, at a place the Poles called Brzezinka and the Germans, Birkenau. Auschwitz Birkenau was destined to play a key role in the extermination of the Jews. But that was not why the camp was built. Instead it was supposed to hold large numbers of Soviet Prisoners of War (PoW)– not the commissars, who were still to be killed, but ordinary soldiers. Some 10,000 Soviet PoWs arrived that autumn to build the camp, but conditions were so horrific that by the spring of 1941, 9,000 were dead.

Meantime, in Auschwitz main camp the SS were looking for a more efficient method of killing unwanted prisoners than working them to death. Hoess’s deputy experimented with a powerful insecticide called Zyklon B, used for killing lice, and discovered that releasing crystals of Zyklon B in a sealed, confined area would also kill human beings. During the second half of 1941, in a series of experiments conducted on sick prisoners and Soviet PoWs, the SS tested the power of this new method of murder. Initially, gassing experiments were conducted in the basement of one of the prison blocks, but the SS soon discovered that a sealed room in the crematorium of the main camp was a more effective place to kill people. By the early part of 1942, Jews from the local area no longer thought fit to work had also been gassed in this new killing chamber.

Meantime, 1942 also brought a change in function for the new camp at Auschwitz Birkenau. The Soviet PoWs were needed elsewhere for work, and so the Nazis decided that Birkenau could be a place to send Jews from all over Europe. With the development of the Nazis’ so called ‘Final Solution’ – the extermination of the Jews – Birkenau found its infamous and murderous purpose.

From 1942 until the liberation of Auschwitz in January 1945, Jews from a variety of countries, starting with Slovakia, suffered and died in Birkenau. Initially the Jews were murdered in make-shift gas chambers in converted peasant cottages at Birkenau – this was considered a more secluded killing location than the crematoria in the main camp. But in 1943 the first of four brick-built gas chamber/crematoria complexes opened at Auschwitz Birkenau. These killing factories streamlined the murder process still further.

Did Auschwitz have the same function as other death camps?

Auschwitz had an unusual role in the Nazi system: it was both a death camp and a concentration camp. There is often confusion about the contrasting roles of each today. A concentration camp, like Dachau, had existed since 1933 and its function was not a secret. It was a place that those the Nazis considered their enemies were sent for a brutal process of ‘re-education’, in the course of which a number were killed. But though the treatment of prisoners in these concentration camps was appalling, the majority of the inmates in the pre-war camps survived the horrendous experience.

Death camps, on the other hand, only came into existence during the Second World War and their location and function was a state secret. Jews were sent there to be murdered immediately on arrival – only a tiny number were selected to work within the camp and assist the SS with tasks like the sorting of the belongings of murdered Jews. Over time the Nazis intended these Jews to perish as well.

Auschwitz was more complicated. The selection process, for instance, was conducted on a larger scale. Jews in each transport were selected either for a temporary chance to live – and likely be worked to death in one of the many industrial concerns nearby – or to be murdered immediately in the gas chambers of Birkenau.

Children were almost invariably sent to their deaths during the selection process. Only in the most exceptional circumstances – such as selection for medical experiments – did any of them survive more than a few hours. Dr Josef Mengele, for instance, conducted a notorious series of experiments at Auschwitz on twin children. Infamously, most of the children died during the process.

The reason we can see the vast area of Auschwitz Birkenau today, with its row upon row of wooden barracks, is because the Nazis planned on keeping selected Jews alive, albeit temporarily, in order to be used as workers. By 1944, part of Birkenau’s function was to act as a vast sorting area for human beings, with the Nazis keeping selected Jews at Birkenau alive for several weeks before subjecting them to further selections – either to be sent elsewhere for work or to be killed. Jews were often sent from Birkenau to camps close to industrial concerns in the surrounding area and then returned to Birkenau to be murdered once they could no longer work.

In death camps like Treblinka, on the other hand, there was no need for this kind of space or this number of barracks. The vast majority of Jews arriving there would be dead in a matter of hours.

What is the significance of Auschwitz today?

Auschwitz is the site of the largest single mass murder in the history the world. Some 1.1 million people died there, the vast majority of them Jews, though others were murdered as well. Not just Polish political prisoners but other groups like Sinti and Roma. That fact on its own is enough to ensure its lasting significance. But there’s more. It’s that the method of killing – in brick buildings resembling factories, where human beings would enter in one door and then emerge just hours later as ashes through another – encapsulates a particular kind of modern-day horror. This was mechanized extermination, the likes of which the world had never seen, organised by people from a cultured nation at the heart of Europe who knew exactly what they were doing.

I vividly recall one prisoner saying to me, that at Auschwitz Birkenau he once heard “the camp’s orchestra playing masterpieces by German, Austrian and Italian composers. SS men were sitting by the crematorium where children, mothers, women and men were burning, but they were just sitting there. Now I think that they were pleased to have properly completed their work and were due for a cultural entertainment. They had no dilemmas. The wind from Birkenau blew the smoke from the death camp in but they were just sitting and listening to Mozart and others. This is what a human being is capable of…”


Photos show the horrors of Auschwitz, 75 years after its liberation

It was the greatest tragedy of the Holocaust. In just five years, over one million people were murdered at Auschwitz, the largest and deadliest Nazi concentration camp.

Auschwitz was established in 1940 and located in the suburbs of Oswiecim, a Polish city the Germans annexed. Between 1940 and 1945, it grew to include three main camp centers and a slew of subcamps — each of which were used for forced labor, torture, and mass killing.

An estimated 1.3 million people were deported to Auschwitz during its five-year operation, and approximately 1.1 million were killed.

The terror of Auschwitz finally subsided on January 27, 1945, when the Soviet Army liberated the remaining 7,000 prisoners from the camps.

On the 75th anniversary of this liberation, these photos exhibit the horror and history of Auschwitz.


Monowitz

A sub-camp and from November 1943 a concentration camp to which all the &ldquoindustrial&rdquo sub-camps in the Auschwitz complex were subordinated. It was established at the site of the Polish village of Monowice, whose inhabitants were expelled and buildings razed. The location had previously been envisioned as one of ten barracks-camps planned for compulsory laborers for IG Farben. The first of approximately 2,000 prisoners were brought there from Auschwitz I at the end of October 1942, after which the prisoner population rose to 6,000 in 1943, and almost 11,000 in the late summer of 1944. The prisoners lived in 59 wooden barracks and one made of concrete panels. Each barracks was furnished with 56 three-tier bunks, several tables and stools, and a central heating installation.

Despite somewhat better conditions than in Birkenau and an extra helping of camp soup (food), the strength of Monowitz prisoners dropped rapidly due to the hard labor, and they died or fell victim to selection. In total, 1,670 prisoners were murdered at the building site or died in the sub-camp hospital, and 11,000 were sent to Auschwitz and Birkenau, where the majority of them were killed with a lethal injection of phenol or in the gas chambers.

The commandant throughout the entire existence of Auschwitz III-Monowitz, renamed the Monowitz camp in November 1944, was SS-Hauptsturmführer Heinrich Schwarz. He had 440 SS men at his disposal. In January 1945, the prisoners were evacuated on foot to Gliwice, from where they were transported by rail to the Buchenwald and Mauthausen camps.


Dachau

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Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp in Germany, established on March 10, 1933, slightly more than five weeks after Adolf Hitler became chancellor. Built at the edge of the town of Dachau, about 12 miles (16 km) north of Munich, it became the model and training centre for all other SS-organized camps.

During World War II the main camp was supplemented by about 150 branches scattered throughout southern Germany and Austria, all of which collectively were called Dachau. (This southern system complemented the camps for central and northern Germany, at Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen.) In the course of Dachau’s history, at least 160,000 prisoners passed through the main camp, and 90,000 through the branches. Incomplete records indicate that at least 32,000 of the inmates died there from disease, malnutrition, physical oppression, and execution, but countless more were transported to the extermination camps in German-occupied Poland.

The composition of the inmates reflected the Nazis’ changing choice of victims. The first inmates were Social Democrats, Communists, and other political prisoners. Throughout its existence, Dachau remained a “political camp,” in which political prisoners retained a prominent role. Later victims included Roma (Gypsies) and homosexuals, as well as Jehovah’s Witnesses. Jews were brought to Dachau after Kristallnacht in November 1938. Initially, Jews could be freed if they had a way out of Germany. When the systematic killing of Jews began in 1942, many were sent from Dachau to the extermination camps. Dachau received Jews again after the “death marches” of the winter of 1944–45. These marches, following the forcible evacuation of the extermination camps, were one of the final phases of the Holocaust.

Dachau became the prototype of Nazi concentration camps. Its first commandant, Theodor Eicke, created the organizational structure for the camp. When he was appointed inspector general of all camps, the Dachau system became the model for the other camps.

A gas chamber was built in 1942 but never used. Those who were to be gassed were transported elsewhere, as were the sick, who were sent to Hartheim, one of the killing centres of the T4 Program, established to “euthanize” the infirm and disabled.

Dachau was the first and most important camp at which German doctors and scientists set up laboratories using inmates as involuntary guinea pigs for such experiments as determining the effects on human beings of sudden increases and decreases in atmospheric pressure, studying the effects of freezing on warm-blooded creatures, infecting prisoners with malaria and treating them with various drugs with unknown effects, and testing the effects of drinking seawater or going without food or water. Continued throughout World War II, such experiments and the harsh living conditions made Dachau one of the most notorious of camps. After the war, the scientists and doctors from this and other camps were tried at Nürnberg in the “Doctors’ Trial” seven were sentenced to death. (Lihat Nürnberg trials.)

Dachau was liberated by American troops on April 29, 1945. Among their most-gruesome discoveries were railroad cars filled with Jewish prisoners who had died en route to the camp and had been left to decompose. American and British media coverage of Dachau and other newly liberated camps—which included photographs published in magazines and newsreel footage shown in cinemas—profoundly shaped the public’s understanding of the atrocities that had occurred.


Auschwitz: a short history of the largest mass murder site in human history

On 27 January 1945 Soviet soldiers entered the gates of the Auschwitz concentration camp complex in south-west Poland. The site had been evacuated by the Nazis just days earlier. Thus ended the largest mass murder in a single location in human history.

Precise numbers are still debated, but according to the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, the German SS systematically killed at least 960,000 of the 1.1-1.3 million Jews deported to the camp. Other victims included approximately 74,000 Poles, 21,000 Roma, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war and at least 10,000 from other nationalities. More people died at Auschwitz than at any other Nazi concentration camp and probably than at any death camp in history.

The Soviet troops found grisly evidence of the horror. About 7,000 starving prisoners were found alive in the camp. Millions of items of clothing that once belonged to men, women and children were discovered along with 6,350kg of human hair. The Auschwitz museum holds more than 100,000 pairs of shoes, 12,000 kitchen utensils, 3,800 suitcases and 350 striped camp garments.

Pile of boots at Auschwitz concentration camp. Photograph: Geraint Lewis/Rex

The first Nazi base in Auschwitz, named after the nearby Silesian town of Oświęcim, was set up in May 1940, 37 miles west of Krakow. Now known as Auschwitz I, the site covered 40 square kilometres.

In January 1942, the Nazi party decided to roll out the “Final Solution”. Camps dedicated solely to the extermination of Jews had been created before, but this was formalised by SS Lieutenant General Reinhard Heydrich in a speech at the Wannsee conference. The extermination camp Auschwitz II (or Auschwitz-Birkenau) was opened in the same year.

With its sections separated by barbed-wire fences, Auschwitz II had the largest prisoner population of any of the three main camps. In January 1942, the first chamber using lethal Zyklon B gas was built on the camp. This building was judged inadequate for killing on the scale the Nazis wanted, and four further chambers were built. These were used for systematic genocide right up until November 1944, two months before the camp was liberated.

Aerial view of Auschwitz-Birkenau

This is not the limit of the horrors of Auschwitz I. It was also the site of disturbing medical experimentation on Jewish and Roma prisoners, including castration, sterilisation and testing how they were affected by contagious diseases. The infamous “Angel of Death”, SS captain Dr Josef Mengele, was one of the physicians practising here. His particular interest was experimenting on twins.

According to the numbers provided by the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Auschwitz was the site of the most deaths (1.1 million) of any of the six dedicated extermination camps. By these estimates, Auschwitz was the site of at least one out of every six deaths during the Holocaust. The only camp with comparable figures was Treblinka in north-east Poland, where about 850,000 are thought to have died.

Children wearing concentration camp uniforms shortly after the liberation of Auschwitz by the Soviet army on 27 January 1945. Photograph: SUB/AP

The third camp, Auschwitz III, also called Monowitz, was opened in October 1942. It was predominantly used as a base for imprisoned labourers working for the German chemical company IG Farben. According to the Auschwitz-Birkenau memorial museum, an estimated 10,000 labourers are thought to have died there. Once they were judged incapable of work, most were killed with a phenol injection to the heart.

The SS began to evacuate the camp in mid-January 1945. About 60,000 prisoners were forced to march 30 miles westwards where they could board trains to other concentration camps. The US Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates 15,000 died during the journey, with the Nazis killing anyone who fell behind.

More than 7,000 Nazi personnel are thought to have served at Auschwitz but just a few hundred have been prosecuted for the crimes committed there. The pursuit of justice has not ceased, with German justice officials saying on 2013 that there were 30 surviving Auschwitz officials who should face prosecution.


Tonton videonya: Holokauszt: 4 év börtön Auschwitz könyvelőjének (Februari 2023).

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