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Universitas Glasgow

Universitas Glasgow


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Universitas Glasgow didirikan pada 1451, menjadikannya yang tertua keempat di Inggris dan tertua kedua di Skotlandia (St. Andrews didirikan pada 1411). Perkembangan industri pada abad ke-19 memaksa otoritas universitas untuk pindah ke West End, sebuah situs yang jaraknya tiga mil. Di antara universitas-universitas Skotlandia, Glasgow adalah yang kedua setelah Edinburgh, dalam ukuran populasi mahasiswanya (13.000 mahasiswa). Namun, sekolah kedokterannya adalah yang terbesar di Inggris.


Universitas Glasgow - Sejarah

[Bagian berikut dari Chambers Gazetteer of Scotland muncul di halaman 473-77. — George P. Landow.]

Universitas

Di tengah High Street, di sisi timurnya, terletak gedung-gedung yang disesuaikan dengan penggunaan universitas, dan yang dimasuki oleh gerbang melengkung di bawah gedung utama. Lorong ini mengarah ke lapangan segi empat kecil, dari sana ada pintu masuk ke sebidang tanah besar di belakang, yang disebut Taman Perguruan Tinggi, meskipun sekarang hanya ditumbuhi rumput, dan digunakan oleh para siswa sebagai tempat rekreasi. Tepat di belakang College, berdiri sebuah bangunan yang sangat indah, yang direncanakan oleh almarhum Mr. Stark, mengikuti model kuil Yunani, yang berisi Museum Hunterian.

Seperti telah diketahui, Kolese Glasgow didirikan oleh Uskup Turnbull, 1452-3 — Atas permintaan James II. prelatus terpelajar ini menerima dari Paus Nicholas V. seekor banteng, yang menjadikannya sebuah universitas, atau "studium generale, tarn in theologid, et in jure canonum et civili, quam in artibus et in quacunque licita Jacultate." Pendiri dan pelindungnya yang saleh tidak membiarkannya merana karena kurangnya dukungan. Dia menganugerahkannya dari pendapatannya sendiri, mendirikan rektor, rektor, dekan fakultas, kepala sekolah yang mengajar teologi, dan tiga profesor filsafat. Pada masa Reformasi, institusi tersebut hampir musnah. Para pejabatnya mati, atau melarikan diri ke luar negeri, dan pendapatannya, tentu saja, disita oleh seorang bangsawan yang tamak dan munafik. Yang pertama yang memiliki belas kasihan pada universitas miskin adalah Ratu Mary. Untuk rezeki lima sarjana dia memberikan kepada Kolese itu manse dan kirk dari para Biarawan Khotbah, dengan tiga belas hektar tanah yang berdekatan. Dewan kota Glasgow, menjadi takut bahwa institusi, yang sampai sekarang membedakan kota mereka, akan segera punah, juga memberikan dana abadi. Mereka memberikannya sebagian dari milik para Biarawan Dominikan di kota itu, yang telah jatuh ke tangan mereka sebagai bagian dari jarahan Reformasi. Nilai hadiah ini, bagaimanapun, dalam jumlah kecil, dan bila dikurangi menjadi uang Sterling, tidak akan melebihi jumlah L.25 per tahun. Sebuah kebaikan yang lebih efektif dibuat untuk perguruan tinggi pada tahun 1577, oleh James VI. dalam endowmen pastoran dan vikaris paroki Govan. Dengan hadiah ini, James juga memberikan kepada perguruan tinggi sebuah piagam baru, yang, dalam artikelnya yang paling penting, terus berlaku hingga hari ini. Tidak perlu membaca sistem yang dia terapkan. Kebutuhan setelah-waktu telah meningkatkan jumlah profesor, dan sebagian mengubah karakter dan mode kuliah.

Saat ini, perguruan tinggi Glasgow adalah salah satu yang paling sempurna dan teregulasi terbaik di Skotlandia, hampir tidak kalah dengan Edinburgh sebagai sekolah kedokteran, ia juga sangat terkenal sebagai seminari filosofis dan Yunani. Sesuai dengan penggunaan benua kuno, para siswa dibagi menjadi beberapa negara, yang ada empat — Clydesdale, Tiviotdale, Albany, dan Rothesay. Setiap negara memilih seorang prokurator dan asisten, dan pejabat terakhir bersatu memilih rektor setiap tahun. Fungsi petugas ini, bagaimanapun, hanya kehormatan. Urusan perguruan tinggi dikelola oleh dewan kepala sekolah dan profesor. Universitas dibebaskan dari yurisdiksi hakim kota. Jumlah rata-rata siswa saat ini adalah 1200 per tahun. Mereka dibedakan oleh gaun merah, dan akhir-akhir ini, mode Oxford mengenakan topi persegi telah diperkenalkan sebagian. Mereka tinggal di penginapan atas kebijakan mereka sendiri di seluruh kota. Selain rektor (biasanya bangsawan) seorang rektor, dekan fakultas, dan kepala sekolah, ada guru besar ketuhanan, logika, anatomi, matematika, teori dan praktik fisika, filsafat moral, filsafat alam, hukum perdata, astronomi praktis, sejarah gereja, sejarah alam, kemanusiaan (Latin,) bedah, kimia, kebidanan, botani, materia mediea, bahasa Oriental, dan Yunani. Mahkota dan perguruan tinggi membagi presentasi. Setiap petugas harus, menurut hukum, berlangganan Pengakuan Iman di pintu masuk tetapi moderasi belakangan ini, dalam beberapa kasus, setuju untuk mengabaikan peraturan ini.

Empat puluh tahun sejak itu, universitas menerima hibah, yang terdiri dari tanah, dari Tuan Snell, di Warwickshire, untuk mendukung di Baliol College, Oxford, sepuluh siswa, yang seharusnya telah belajar selama beberapa tahun di universitas Glasgow, dan menjalani uji coba tertentu sebagai ujian prestasi. Kedermawanan ini telah menjadi sarana untuk mendatangkan. memajukan beberapa orang yang paling terpelajar dan cakap yang saat ini dapat dibanggakan oleh Skotlandia. Bantuan besar baru-baru ini juga telah dibuat.

Kolese ini memiliki beasiswa berikut, di bawah pengelolaan hakim dan dewan kota: — Boyd — dua jumlahnya — untuk siswa dewa, putra burgesses Glasgow, nama Boyd lebih disukai — pembayaran tahunan untuk setiap L.5, Kita. l|d, yang dapat berlanjut selama dua atau empat tahun, atas pilihan calon patron Wilson's — dua jumlahnya — kandidat harus siswa ilmu ketuhanan, master seni, dan putra burgesses, yang tidak mampu menopang mereka — pembayaran tahunan L6., 13 detik. 4d. selama empat tahun Struthers' — untuk mahasiswa ilmu ketuhanan — pembayaran tahunan L.6, 13s. 4d. selama empat tahun Leighton — untuk mahasiswa filsafat — pembayaran tahunan L.9 selama empat tahun Gilhagie — untuk mahasiswa ilmu ketuhanan — nama Gilhagie dan Somerville lebih disukai — pembayaran tahunan L.9. untuk empat tahun.

Universitas Glasgow memiliki koleksi buku yang bagus, diperkaya dengan berbagai warisan, dan penambahan salinan dari setiap buku yang dicetak di Inggris Raya. Almarhum Dr. William Hunter, mewariskan museum keingintahuan, persiapan anatomi, dan buku-bukunya yang berharga, yang ditata dengan baik di gedung yang sudah diperhatikan, di mana mereka terbuka untuk inspeksi publik dengan sedikit biaya.

Universitas Anderson

Selain College of Glasgow yang dicarter, kota ini memiliki pendirian yang agak mirip, dengan karakter modern dan kehormatan besar, di bawah judul di atas. Lembaga ini menempati sebuah bangunan yang indah di sisi utara George's Street, berisi teater atau aula besar, mampu menampung 400 orang, museum, perpustakaan, laboratorium, dan apartemen peralatan. Didirikan pada tahun 1796, berdasarkan wasiat almarhum Mr. John Anderson, profesor filsafat alam, dan ditempatkan di bawah kurator para hakim dan delapan puluh satu wali, terdiri dari sembilan kelas orang yang berbeda, dalam proporsi yang sama, yang memilih ketua, sekretaris, bendahara, dan fungsionaris lainnya. Sejak didirikan, rutinitas pendidikan telah diubah, dan sekarang berada pada pijakan yang bijaksana. Ada tiga belas profesor, yang memberikan kuliah tentang filsafat alam, kimia, anatomi, bedah, bedah hewan, materia mediea, kebidanan, farmasi, matematika, geografi, filsafat eksperimental, sejarah alam, logika, etika, dan bahasa modern. Pendirian tersebut telah mencapai keberhasilan yang paling lengkap, dan telah memiliki keuntungan yang tak terhitung dalam menyebarkan pengetahuan yang berguna di antara kelas-kelas orang yang jika tidak akan tetap mengabaikan subjek yang diperlakukan. Biaya kehadiran sedang. Lembaga itu sekarang dilengkapi dengan museum sejarah alam, yang sangat luas dan berharga, dan ditempatkan di sebuah apartemen, yang utamanya adalah rotunda berdiameter lima puluh dua kaki, dan tinggi tiga puluh kaki. Publik memiliki akses ke sana dengan persyaratan yang sama seperti ke museum Hunterian. Soire'es, untuk percakapan sastra dan ilmiah, diadakan secara teratur di universitas selama musim dingin. Andersonian Institution beruntung memiliki sejumlah profesor terkemuka, dan antara lain, Dr. Thomas Garnet, Dr. George Birkbeck, dan Dr. Andrew Ure.

Kelas untuk Mekanika

Andersonian Institution memiliki kelas untuk pendidikan mekanik atau lainnya dalam lapisan masyarakat yang lebih rendah, yang dihadiri dengan baik ada kelas serupa di lembaga lain yang berjudul Glasgow Mechanics' Institution. Yang terakhir dibuka pada November 1823, dan asal-usulnya sama anehnya dengan keberhasilannya yang telah dibedakan. Jauh sebelum dimulainya, ada Kelas Mekanik yang berhubungan dengan Institusi Andersonian, — kelas pertama dari jenis yang dikenal, tidak hanya di Inggris, tetapi di dunia. Ketidakpuasan yang timbul di antara para anggotanya sehubungan dengan manajemen khususnya, resolusi-resolusi diusulkan dan dilaksanakan, pada beberapa pertemuan publik, bahwa pemisahan diri harus dilakukan, dan sebuah lembaga baru, berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip yang lebih populer, didirikan. Waktu yang dipilih untuk menerapkan resolusi seperti itu adalah yang paling tepat. Perdagangan dan perdagangan negara itu sangat makmur, dan semacam kegilaan telah menguasai pikiran publik pada subjek mekanika dan kimia, seolah-olah pengetahuan tentang ini merupakan dasar utama, jika bukan satu-satunya, kebahagiaan manusia, dan dari kemakmuran suatu bangsa. Pendirian institusi mekanik, dan terbitan berkala yang dikhususkan untuk sains, menjadi tren saat ini. Dalam situasi yang sama, lembaga baru ini membangkitkan minat, mungkin belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya dalam sejarah pendirian seperti itu? Itu bergantung pada fondasinya sepenuhnya pada sumbangan individu pribadi, dalam bentuk uang, buku, atau peralatan, dan dengan cara ini persediaan properti dengan cepat diakumulasikan hingga jumlah lebih dari L.1000. Dr Birkbeck diminta, dan memberikan persetujuannya, untuk menjadi pelindung kehormatan dari pendirian bayi ini, dan sebelum bulan November, 1823, tempat telah diperoleh, dosen ditunjuk, dan segala sesuatu disiapkan untuk sistem reguler dan penting dari instruksi ilmiah populer. Sistem pengajaran yang pada mulanya dipikirkan cukup luas, dan oleh karena itu diangkat dosen untuk filsafat alam dan kimia, anatomi populer, matematika dan geografi, sejarah alam dan gambar arsitektur. Tidak ada kelas terakhir dari mata pelajaran ini, kami percaya, yang pernah dibentuk kelas matematika dilanjutkan untuk dua sesi saja dan untuk sejarah alam untuk satu sesi. Satu-satunya kelas permanen adalah kelas filsafat alam dan kimia, dan anatomi populer. Satu mata kuliah diberikan tentang ekonomi politik, dan dua mata kuliah tentang geografi, tetapi kurangnya dorongan liberal menyebabkan mereka kemudian menyerah. Selama tahun pertama keberadaannya, lembaga ini memiliki lebih dari seribu siswa. Keberhasilan seperti itu, bagaimanapun, tidak dihitung untuk menjadi permanen, dan jumlahnya, sebagian sebagai konsekuensi dari reaksi umum dalam selera publik, sebagian karena fluktuasi perdagangan yang berlebihan, dan tidak sedikit, dikatakan, karena ketidakpopuleran. dari beberapa dosen di jurusan filsafat alam dan kimia, yang, akibatnya, sering berubah, — secara bertahap jatuh, sampai, selama tiga atau empat tahun terakhir, mereka tidak rata-rata di atas dua ratus lima puluh, atau tiga ratus. Manajemen lembaga dipegang oleh komite enam belas, dipilih dari dan oleh kelas, satu setengah pensiun setiap tahun. Keberhasilan yang terlalu besar pada awalnya adalah penyebab dari banyak rasa malu berikutnya, dan lembaga itu selama beberapa tahun berada dalam kesulitan keuangan yang sangat besar, sebagai akibat dari hutang yang dikontrak pada pembentukannya, dan yang diperkirakan beberapa tahun akan cukup untuk dilikuidasi, tetapi sebab-sebab yang telah disebutkan itu membuat hal itu tidak mungkin terjadi. Namun, prospeknya akhirnya mulai cerah. Permohonan kepada masyarakat liberal Glasgow telah dibuat atas namanya, dan jumlah yang telah dikumpulkan cukup untuk melepaskan beban yang ada, dan membangunnya atas dasar yang lebih permanen. Kuliah tentang filsafat alam dan kimia telah dipisahkan dengan banyak manfaat untuk pendirian, beberapa dosen baru telah dilembagakan untuk tujuan memperluas sistem pengajaran, dan perubahan lain yang dibuat dalam manajemen umum, seperti yang diperkirakan akan menambah keabadian dan kegunaannya sebagai seminari umum. Persediaan aparatur lembaga ini tidak terlalu banyak, meskipun sebagian besar sangat berharga, yang secara mengagumkan diadaptasi untuk ilustrasi mata pelajaran ilmiah. Perpustakaan, yang dapat diakses oleh anggota semua kelas, meskipun hanya kelas mekanik dan kimia yang memiliki bagian dalam manajemen umum, terdiri dari hampir 200 volume karya paling penting dalam bahasa Inggris tentang sains, seni, dan sastra.

Sekolah tata bahasa

Institusi yang sangat baik ini, yang menyerupai Sekolah Tinggi Edinburgh dalam sistemnya, dikenal lebih kuno daripada universitas kota, yang mungkin setara dengan pembentukan gereja Glasgow, ketika ditempatkan pada pijakan yang teratur. Dari Reformasi sampai Revolusi, seminari itu memiliki tatanan yang terhormat, dan sejak periode terakhir seminari itu secara seragam mempertahankan reputasi yang unggul. Selama bertahun-tahun perjalanan pendidikan dan hal-hal lain yang terkait dengannya telah mengalami berbagai perubahan sesuai dengan sentimen modern. Satu perubahan, mengacu pada kebiasaan lama yang aneh, dilakukan oleh hakim pada tahun 1782, ketika petugas upacara tertentu yang memberikan gratifikasi kepada para guru, yang disebut "persembahan Candlemas," dihapuskan. Pada kesempatan ini, menurut Cleland, para cendekiawan biasa berkumpul di aula umum, ketika para master sedang duduk di mimbar mereka, anak laki-laki di semua kelas diharapkan berjalan satu per satu ke rektor, dan memberinya kesempatan. persembahan setelah melakukannya untuk pergi ke tuan mereka sendiri dan memberinya juga persembahan. Bagian yang paling aneh dari prosedur ini, adalah serangkaian seruan yang digunakan oleh master sehubungan dengan tingkat persembahan. Ketika jumlah yang diberikan kepada salah satu master di bawah lima shilling, tidak ada pemberitahuan yang diambil, tetapi ketika jumlahnya mencapai jumlah itu, rektor berkata "vivat," (biarkan dia hidup), di mana seluruh cendekiawan memberikan embel-embel dengan kaki mereka. Untuk sepuluh shilling, "Floreat," (biarkan dia berkembang,) ketika dua ruff diberikan. Untuk lima belas shilling, "Jloreat bis," (biarkan dia berkembang dua kali,) ketika tiga ruff diberikan. Untuk dua puluh shilling, "Jloreat ter," (biarkan dia berkembang tiga kali,) ketika empat ruff diberikan. Untuk guinea dan ke atas, " gloriat," (biarkan dia menjadi mulia,) ketika enam ruff diberikan. Ketika urusan selesai, rektor berdiri, dan dengan suara yang terdengar mengumumkan pemenangnya, dengan menyebutkan nama anak laki-laki yang memberikan jumlah terbesar. Atas perbuatannya ini, sang pemenang disambut oleh seluruh ulama dengan tepuk tangan yang gemuruh.* Pemberian gratifikasi dilanjutkan, tetapi tangisan dan rengekan itu diperintahkan untuk dihentikan. Direnovasi dalam pengaturannya pada periode di atas dan kemudian, sekolah itu dibentuk dengan seorang rektor dan empat master, masing-masing yang terakhir membawa kelas selama empat tahun persiapan untuk kedatangannya di bawah rektor, yang mengajarnya satu tahun. Lembaga ini sekarang menjadi salah satu yang terbaik di negara ini, perhatian penuh diberikan pada pengajaran dan ujian. Anak laki-laki menarik tiket untuk tempat tiga kali, dan diperiksa delapan kali dalam setahun, oleh komite dewan kota, pendeta dan profesor. Tempat mereka ditandai dengan hati-hati pada semua kesempatan ini, dan peringkat rata-rata mereka di kelas dihitung dari ujian ini selain itu, karena tidak ada hari tertentu yang ditetapkan untuk ujian ini, para master dan sarjana harus selalu siap. Jabatan Rektor sekarang dihapuskan, dan masing-masing dari empat master memiliki gaji L.50 per tahun, selain 10-an. 6d. per kuartal dari masing-masing muridnya. Para ulama membayar Is. terhadap dukungan perpustakaan, Is. ke petugas kebersihan, Is. ke petugas kebersihan, dan 2s. 6d. untuk batubara, setiap tahun. Ada master menulis, yang biayanya 10-an. 6d. seperempat. Dengan pengecualian dari tulisan

Grammar School of Glasgow pernah terletak di gang terbatas yang disebut Greyfriar's Wynd, dari mana, sekitar lima puluh tahun sejak itu, dipindahkan ke tempat yang nyaman di sisi utara George Street. Ini akhirnya ditemukan terlalu kecil, sebuah bangunan baru yang bagus didirikan, 1820-1, dalam skala yang lebih besar, di tanah tinggi yang bersebelahan dengan North Montrose Street, dekat bekas sekolah. Berdampingan dengannya adalah tempat bermain yang sangat baik.

* Penggunaan semacam ini umum di hampir seluruh Skotlandia sampai sekitar akhir abad yang lalu, dan, dalam banyak kasus, mereka masih bertahan. Mereka tampaknya berasal dari persembahan lilin, Sue. untuk " Our Lady " di Candlemas, sebagai hadiah selalu dibuat pada waktu itu, dan diikuti oleh anak laki-laki membuat api unggun, yang disebut bleeze Candlemas. Alih-alih frasa Victor, yang digunakan di Glasgow untuk menunjuk pemberi utama, kita telah mengenal istilah Raja yang digunakan di sekolah pedesaan dan raja fiktif ini selalu dibawa ke jalan-jalan, setelah para sarjana dibebaskan dari sekolah, pada apa yang disebut Kursi Raja, — yaitu, kursi yang dibentuk oleh tangan dua anak laki-laki, disilangkan dan dijalin. master, biaya dengan demikian sekitar sepertiga lebih sedikit (meskipun gratifikasi Candlemas diberikan) daripada yang dibebankan di Sekolah Tinggi Edinburgh, sedangkan rutinitas pendidikan sangat mirip. Jumlah anak laki-laki yang hadir biasanya sekitar 600 orang.

Sekolah Swasta dan Gratis

Tidak ada sekolah paroki di Glasgow, tetapi kota dan pinggiran kota dilengkapi dengan banyak sekolah, dikelola oleh individu swasta, atau ditopang oleh sumbangan dari badan publik atau orang lain. Tidak ada pengembalian yang dibuat mengenai jumlah sekolah sejak 1816, ketika ada 166 di dalam kerajaan, tidak termasuk sekolah Minggu, memiliki 13.846 sarjana, 3563 di antaranya menerima pendidikan mereka secara gratis tetapi ini memberikan penjelasan yang paling tidak memuaskan tentang pendidikan skolastik di Glasgow, untuk pinggiran kota, yang tidak diperhitungkan, sama padatnya dengan kota, dan dilengkapi dengan sejumlah besar sekolah. Sejak tahun 1816, jumlah sekolah juga harus meningkat pesat. Dengan asumsi bahwa sekarang ada tiga ratus sekolah di Glasgow, betapa berbedanya gagasan kita tentang populasi dan kecerdasan tempat itu, dari yang ditawarkan oleh fakta, bahwa pada tahun 1604, presbiteri mengeluh kepada hakim tentang pluralitas. sekolah, menyatakan pendapat mereka bahwa sekolah tata bahasa dan lainnya cukup untuk kota!

Bibliografi

Chambers, Robert. The Gazetterr Skotlandia. Glasgow: Blackie and Son, 1838. Arsip Internet versi online didigitalkan dengan dana dari Perpustakaan Nasional Skotlandia. Web. 30 September 2018.


Panggilan dan Tanggapan: Universitas Glasgow & Perbudakan

Panggilan dan Tanggapan: Universitas Glasgow & Perbudakan adalah bagian dari program pro-aktif universitas tentang keadilan reparatif setelah studi selama setahun menemukan bahwa mereka memperoleh dukungan &lsquofinansial&rsquo yang disumbangkan dari keuntungan yang diperoleh dari perdagangan budak. Pada tahun 2016, Universitas Glasgow mengakui bahwa terlepas dari sikap abolisionis yang kuat pada abad ke-18 dan ke-19, Universitas Glasgow terus menerima hadiah dan warisan dari orang-orang yang mendapat keuntungan dari perbudakan untuk tujuan institusional lebih lanjut.

Pameran ini menyajikan pilihan item, empat di antaranya dipamerkan di bawah ini, dan mengundang anggota masyarakat untuk menawarkan pemikiran dan tanggapan mereka untuk membantu menciptakan dialog terbuka tentang perdagangan budak dan reparasi modern.

Barang-barang yang dipamerkan mengeksplorasi &lsquocara yang sering tidak diketahui dan tidak terduga&rsquo di mana beberapa item dalam koleksi universitas terkait dengan sejarah perbudakan dan gerakan abolisionis. Sejumlah orang yang terkait dengan universitas tersebut diminta memberikan tanggapannya terhadap suatu objek dan sejarahnya.

Sorotan barang

1. Gambar pengaturan umum untuk Kapal Layar Jamaika, 1854
Perpustakaan Universitas Glasgow, Arsip William Simons & Co Ltd, UGD114/71

Dipilih oleh Profesor Sir Geoff Palmer, Konsul Kehormatan Jamaika untuk Skotlandia

Kapal layar besi tiga tiang sepanjang 146 kaki yang dikenal sebagai Jamaika dibangun di Clyde pada tahun 1854 oleh William Simons & Co. Pada tahun 1860-an, perusahaan tersebut membangun kapal yang menjalankan blokade untuk membantu pedagang Glasgow yang kaya menghindari konsekuensi ekonomi dari Perang Saudara Amerika. NS Jamaika dibangun untuk Stirling, Gordon & Co, Pedagang India Barat, yang mitranya memiliki perkebunan di Jamaika. Keluarga dari salah satu mitra menyumbangkan £3,000 untuk pembangunan gedung Universitas di Gilmorehill pada tahun 1860-an.

Profesor Sir Geoff Palmer berkata: &lsquoDesain kapal layar buatan Glasgow tahun 1854 ini, diberi nama Jamaika, mengingatkan saya pada hubungan sejarah panjang Jamaika dengan Glasgow. Jamaica Street dibuka pada tahun 1763 untuk perdagangan barang-barang yang diproduksi oleh budak-budak barang di Hindia Barat. Keluarga Stirling dan Dennistoun menghasilkan banyak uang dari perbudakan kejam ini. Meskipun sejarah perbudakan ini tidak dapat diubah, pameran seperti ini dapat mencerahkan dan mengubah konsekuensinya.&rsquo

2. Pilih bagian dari Kitab Suci untuk penggunaan Budak Negro di Kepulauan British West-India
London, 1807
Perpustakaan Universitas Glasgow, Sp Coll Euing Da-g.23

Dipilih oleh Anggota Dewan Graham Campbell, Dewan Kota Glasgow

&lsquoSlave Bible&rsquo yang langka ini termasuk di antara 10.000 buku yang disumbangkan ke Universitas oleh pialang asuransi William Euing pada tahun 1874. Buku itu diterbitkan di London untuk misionaris Kristen dan telah diedit secara besar-besaran untuk menghilangkan apa pun yang mungkin dianggap memicu pemberontakan.

Penasihat Campbell berkata: &lsquoBob Marley pernah bernyanyi tentang perbudakan mental &ldquonone tetapi diri kita sendiri dapat membebaskan pikiran kita&rdquo. Pro-perbudakan &ldquoKristen&rdquo sangat berhati-hati dalam mengedit Alkitab untuk mengesampingkan kebenarannya yang paling tidak menyenangkan tentang kebebasan, emansipasi, kebebasan, keadilan dan belas kasihan. Orang Afrika yang diperbudak dan keturunan mereka memiliki rantai mental yang berbaur dari campuran khas Skotlandia antara kebencian rasial supremasi kulit putih dan semangat misionaris rasionalis pencerahan. Alkitab ini adalah alat perbudakan yang efektif seperti rantai besi lainnya.&rsquo

3. Interior Akademi Seni Rupa
David Allan (1744-1796)
Pemburu, GLAHA:43390

Dipilih oleh Jules Koch, mahasiswa pascasarjana Studi Museum, Universitas Glasgow

Karya seni ini menggambarkan Akademi Seni Rupa Foulis, didirikan pada 1754 di dalam gedung Universitas Glasgow di High Street. Pendirinya adalah Andrew dan Robert Foulis yang mencari dana dari pedagang kaya kota untuk memulai sekolah mereka. Para pedagang itu - Campbell, Glassford, dan Ingram - menghasilkan uang dari perdagangan budak di Hindia Barat. David Allan adalah seorang mahasiswa di Akademi 1755-62. Lukisan dan ilustrasinya dapat ditemukan di koleksi di seluruh Skotlandia, termasuk The Hunterian, Galeri Seni Glasgow Kelvingrove dan Galeri Nasional Skotlandia di Edinburgh.

Jules Koch berkata: &lsquoMerupakan hak istimewa untuk belajar dan bekerja di institusi dengan koleksi bersejarah seperti itu. Objek di museum memiliki kemampuan untuk berbicara, atau berbagi, &ldquosejarah tersembunyi&rdquo dari banyak perspektif. Memahami latar belakang objek indah, seperti gambar Akademi Seni Rupa ini, bisa mengejutkan dan sulit. Tapi itu sangat penting untuk bagaimana kita menafsirkan dan memahami hubungan kita dengan masa lalu.&rsquo

4. Instruktur Anak atau Alfabet Gambar
Awal abad ke-19
Perpustakaan Universitas Glasgow, Arsip James Lumsden & Son, DC112/16/1

Dipilih oleh Tawona &lsquoganyamatope&rsquo Sithole, Penyair di Kediaman, Pengungsi Glasgow, Jaringan Suaka dan Migrasi, Universitas Glasgow

Buku ini dicetak dan dijual oleh bisnis percetakan keluarga Lumsden. Anggota keluarga yang paling menonjol adalah Sir James Lumsden yang dianugerahi gelar bangsawan atas jasanya kepada Kota sebagai Lord Provost ketika batu fondasi untuk bangunan baru Universitas di Gilmorehill diletakkan oleh Pangeran Wales pada tahun 1868. Pada tahun 1864, Lumsden, seperti banyak pengusaha Glasgow kaya lainnya, mendapat keuntungan dari investasi di kapal yang dibangun di Clyde dengan tujuan menghindari blokade pelabuhan di negara bagian Amerika Selatan. Blokade didirikan oleh Presiden Abraham Lincoln sebagai bagian dari perjuangan untuk menghapus perbudakan.

&lsquoB untuk hitam, c untuk kapten: petualangan bertema alfabet dari awak yang sangat mabuk laut dengan watak kolonial yang tabah dalam gelombang pasang tak henti-hentinya kekurangan sejarah.&rsquo

Hak Cipta © 2019, Tawona &lsquoganyamatope&rsquo Sithole. Seluruh hak cipta.

Detail pameran

Panggilan dan Tanggapan: Universitas Glasgow & Perbudakan dipajang di Kapel Universitas Glasgow hingga 31 Januari 2020, dengan item juga tersedia untuk dilihat secara online. Tanggapan yang diterima sebagai hasil dari pameran akan disimpan sebagai bagian dari arsip yang berkaitan dengan program keadilan reparatif.

Panggilan dan Tanggapan: Universitas Glasgow dan Perbudakan
Berlaku hingga 31 Januari 2020
Kapel Memorial Universitas
Bebas biaya masuk


Statistik di bagian ini berhubungan dengan mata pelajaran umum di universitas ini – bukan kursus khusus ini. Kami menunjukkan ini di mana tidak ada cukup data tentang kursus, atau di mana ini adalah info paling detail yang tersedia bagi kami.

Apa yang dilakukan lulusan setelah enam bulan?

Inilah yang dikatakan para lulusan kepada kami yang mereka lakukan (dan dapatkan), tak lama setelah menyelesaikan kursus mereka. Kami telah menghitung angka untuk menunjukkan kepada Anda apakah prospek langsung ini tinggi, sedang atau rendah, dibandingkan dengan mereka yang mempelajari mata pelajaran ini di universitas lain.

Bidang pekerjaan teratas lulusan

Jumlah orang yang mengambil gelar politik turun tajam tahun lalu dan kami akan mengawasi yang satu ini - ini tidak mungkin karena lulusan mendapatkan hasil yang buruk seperti halnya lulusan politik serta lulusan rata-rata. Kebanyakan lulusan politik atau hubungan internasional sebenarnya tidak terjun ke politik - meskipun banyak yang melakukannya, sebagai aktivis, penggalang dana, dan peneliti. Pekerjaan di pemerintah daerah dan pusat juga penting. Pekerjaan populer lainnya termasuk pemasaran dan PR, pekerjaan pemuda dan komunitas, peran keuangan, SDM dan penelitian akademik (Anda biasanya memerlukan gelar pascasarjana untuk masuk ke penelitian). Karena begitu banyak lulusan mendapatkan pekerjaan sebagai pegawai negeri, banyak lulusan menemukan diri mereka di London setelah lulus. Politik adalah subjek pascasarjana yang sangat populer, dan sekitar satu dari lima lulusan politik melanjutkan untuk mengambil kursus lain - biasanya Master satu tahun - setelah mereka menyelesaikan gelar mereka.


Catatan Lebih Lanjut untuk Pelamar:

Gambaran Umum Ruang Lingkup dan Tujuan Sekolah:

(Ikhtisar ini hanya panduan. Siswa yang mengerjakan topik serupa dengan yang tercantum di bawah ini didorong untuk berbicara dengan Daniel Menning dan/atau Christopher Miller terlebih dahulu.)

Dengan merebaknya virus COVID-19 di seluruh dunia dan banyak negara ekonomi utama menutup kehidupan sosial dan sebagian besar ekonomi, kita telah menyaksikan kontraksi ekonomi yang terjadi dengan kecepatan yang mencengangkan serta sama cepatnya, meskipun agak lebih bervariasi, mengulang kembali. Meskipun terlalu dini untuk memperkirakan efek dan memprediksi durasi kesulitan ekonomi (termasuk, misalnya, kekurangan bahan baku saat ini), jelas bahwa banyak bisnis menderita dan banyak yang tetap bermasalah. Sejumlah besar kemungkinan besar tidak akan bertahan, terlepas dari semua paket bailout pemerintah. Sementara minat terhadap krisis ekonomi dan pengaruhnya terhadap bisnis telah meningkat selama beberapa tahun terakhir, kondisi saat ini kemungkinan akan memberikan dorongan baru untuk penelitian dan menghasilkan perhatian baru dan kalibrasi ulang metode penelitian.

Sejarah bisnis dan ekonomi telah berada di garis depan dalam menjelaskan beberapa perubahan besar dalam ekonomi dan masyarakat – dimulai dengan karya Alfred Chandler pada 1960-an. (Chandler 1962, 1977). Namun demikian, berkaitan dengan sejarah bisnis krisis dan manajemen krisis secara khusus, literatur jauh kurang berkembang dengan baik. Ada tiga alasan untuk kelalaian ini. Pertama, tradisi sejarah bisnis selama beberapa dekade, hingga relatif baru-baru ini, adalah mempelajari sejarah perusahaan individu, atau lebih jarang sektor. Memang, sejarah bisnis pernah dianggap sebagai cabang terapan dari sejarah ekonomi bagi para sarjana yang ingin bergerak melampaui tren ekonomi makro. Efek bersihnya adalah bahwa literatur tentang perusahaan telah didominasi oleh sejarah yang ditugaskan di mana sejarawan dibayar oleh perusahaan (yang bertahan) dan diberikan penggunaan arsipnya. Meskipun seringkali sangat berharga, studi-studi ini cenderung mengarah pada narasi “naik turun”.

Kedua, di mana sejarah bisnis telah mempelajari krisis secara khusus, pekerjaan yang ditugaskan berpotensi memiliki beberapa masalah metodologis lebih lanjut. Yang paling jelas, banyak perusahaan bertahan sampai setidaknya titik sejarah ditugaskan. Jadi, ini mungkin merupakan kasus bias seleksi terhadap kesuksesan – atau setidaknya terhadap perusahaan terbesar dan paling penting (Berghoff 2006). Terkait dengan hal ini, sifat studi yang ditugaskan juga telah menuai kritik: yaitu, bahwa kesuksesan sering dikaitkan dengan manajemen daripada keberuntungan, sementara episode kegagalan dikaitkan dengan faktor eksternal atau tak terduga di luar kendali manajemen.

Ketiga, penyebab dan akibat dari Global Financial Crisis (GFC) tahun 2008 telah menghasilkan jutaan halaman beasiswa dan komentar dalam dekade terakhir, dengan efek mendorong sejarawan untuk membandingkan dengan Wall Street Crash dan Great Depression. Sebagai contoh, Werner Abelshauser (2009) adalah salah satu dari banyak orang yang tertarik untuk belajar dari krisis ekonomi secara eksplisit dengan menggunakan contoh tahun 1931 dan 2008. Meskipun tidak setiap krisis seperti tahun 2008 dalam penyebab, skala atau ruang lingkup, itu tidak selalu merupakan fenomena baru: gelembung dot-com 2000 dibandingkan dengan cara yang hampir sama. (Ojala dan Uskali 2006). Akibatnya, kehancuran pasar saham pada tahun 1929 dan Depresi Hebat berikutnya sejauh ini telah menjadi krisis ekonomi yang paling banyak dipelajari dalam sejarah, dengan minat baru dari tahun 2008 (Tooze 2019), sementara efek dari krisis ekonomi yang lebih teratur dan berskala lebih kecil diderita oleh bisnis sebelum dan setelah 1929 sebagian besar diabaikan.

Kondisi ekonomi saat ini menjanjikan untuk membawa momentum baru untuk studi bisnis di masa kesulitan ekonomi yang lebih besar dan lebih kecil, dan karena itu kami mengundang mahasiswa PhD yang bekerja di bidang bisnis dan


Glasgow bersejarah is a celebration of Glasgow's rich local history and heritage, inviting you to discover the city's wide and varied history, from its Dark Age roots to the Medieval City, from the Merchants' City to the legacy of the Victorian period and beyond.

The city’s historical legacy is held in many different places museums and art galleries, libraries and archives, historic buildings, parks and gardens, rivers and canals from its archaeology to its architecture. Glasgow is a vibrant and cosmopolitan place with a wealth of cultural heritage to explore.

Discover the vibrant history of the city and explore its past through the key themes of the city's history:

Medieval City

The beginnings of medieval Glasgow start around 1119 with the building of the Cathedral on the site of St Kentigern’s first church, the patron saint of Glasgow.

Medieval Glasgow ran from the river Clyde, up through the Saltmarket, along High Street and up to the Cathedral. Recent development of the High Street area has led to archaeological excavation, which has uncovered many hidden gems, giving us a better understanding of Glasgow as a medieval burgh.

The medieval landscape of buildings such as the Bishop's Castle, the Auld Pedagogy, the Black and Greyfriars and the Old College, which dominated the medieval High Street for hundreds of years, now lie hidden beneath Glasgow’s Victorian architecture and new developments. Although gone, look around and you'll still see references to the city's history, whether it's the "Old College Bar" or "Blackfriars" free house.

However the city’s remaining medieval architecture, such as Glasgow Cathedral, Crookston Castle, Provand's Lordship, Provan Hall, the Trongate and Tolbooth Steeple can be still be visited today, while the hidden medieval city can be explored through the Medieval City Map and the Tale of Two Towns by Neil Baxter.

Glasgow's coat of arms also has medieval and earlier roots with the fish and the bird appearing in the 13th century and all of the symbols first appearing together in the 15th century. Intertwined closely with St Mungo (the city's patron saint), read more on the story of Glasgow’s coat of arms and visit the coat of arms digital map to find out where in the city you can spot it, whether in engravings, stained glass windows or ornate lamp posts.

Built Heritage

Glasgow is one of the United Kingdom’s most important historic cities with many listed buildings by architects of world renown. Much of Glasgow’s past and its present are expressed in these exceptional buildings, many of which are listed and protected.

The celebrated author and spy Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) described Glasgow in glowing terms:

“The four principal streets are the fairest for breadth and the finest built that I have ever seen in one city together. With the exception of London, ‘tis the cleanest and beautifullest and best built city in Britain”.

One of the oldest buildings in Glasgow is the Cathedral, several parts of which date from the early 12th Century, although an early Christian sarcophagus, dating from 576 AD, is to be found within another Listed church Govan Old Parish Church. These buildings along with 1,800 other structures within the city are listed by Historic Scotland to protect them for future generations. Other famous listed buildings within the city include Central Station, the City Chambers, The University of Glasgow, The Trades House of Glasgow and Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum. Tours are available at all of these venues.

The largest areas covered by single listings are Glasgow’s 4 Necropolises. The Glasgow Necropolis was based on Père-Lachaise in Paris and contains the mortal remains of some of the city’s leading citizens housed in ornate Victorian splendour. Many of the foremost architectural practices of the day were employed to design the magnificent mausoleums and gravestones in a wide variety of architectural styles.

Throughout the city monuments play an important role in the makeup of the city's built heritage. The first major municipal monument in the UK to be erected to commemorate Nelson’s victory at the Battle of Trafalgar stands on Glasgow Green. The huge obelisk was designed by Glasgow’s leading architect of the day, David Hamilton, in 1806. Explore more of Glasgow Green, one of Britain's oldest public spaces.

Glasgow is also home to many religious buildings including Glasgow Cathedral, Garnethill Synagogue, the Glasgow Central Mosque and the Glasgow Gurdwara.

Glasgow's housing has taken many forms over the years with many still in existence such as tenements, Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian terraces and villas and more recently post war housing including high rise flats and 'new towns' on the outskirts of the city.

Most people are now familiar with the work of Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Alexander “Greek” Thomson and Robert Adam but there are over 400 architectural practices and individuals which have contributed to the city's listed heritage, with many contributing to Glasgow's position at the forefront of the use of pioneering materials and techniques in the building process in past centuries.

Archaeology in the city


O. Amin - CC by SA

Have you ever wondered what lies beneath your feet? The city of Glasgow has a wonderful array of hidden gems for you to discover. Various recent developments have led to archaeological excavations taking place around the city and uncovering the history of the city.

The earthwork on Camphill within Queens Park, lies beneath the highest point on the park grounds and is of uncertain date and purpose, although suggestions are that it is medieval or Roman in origin. Two other earthworks can be enjoyed within Pollok Country Park and are situated within the North Wood.

Explore the Antonine Wall stretching from Old Kilpatrick in the west to Bo’ness in the east. 2008 saw the inscription of this most northern frontier of the Roman Empire by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Some of the wall lies within the Glasgow city boundary but most of the wall stretches from east to west and can be reached by car. Objects from the wall can be seen by visiting the University of Glasgow’s Hunterian Museum.

Nineteenth century Govan Old Parish Church is set within an ancient graveyard. You can visit the church which holds the five surviving hogback carved gravestones, as well as a set of 31 carved stones dating from the 9th to the 11th centuries. The church is open between spring and autumn to the public, simply visit their website for opening times. Discover the Medieval City through the Medival City Map and visit Glasgow Cathedral, Provands Lordship, Provan Hall and the Tolbooth Steeple.
Medieval City Map.
Explore Crookston Castle, the second oldest building in the city and Glasgow’s last surviving castle, making it one of the most interesting buildings of medieval architecture. Legend has it that Lord Darnley and Mary Queen of Scots sat beneath an ancient yew tree which once lay in its grounds. Finds from an excavation of the site can also be seen at the University of Glasgow’s Hunterian Museum.

West of Scotland Archaeology service and Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland hold information about many archaeological sites in and around Glasgow. Another important organisation is the Glasgow Archaeology Society.

Heritage Trails

From the Iron Ages to the modern day, Glasgow has a rich and diverse history to be discovered. A number of maps, tours and trails have been developed to enable you to explore the city and discover its history and archaeology in person.

Whether you are interested in the early ages, the medieval period, local history, built heritage or the natural heritage of Glasgow’s landscapes and parks- you will find an easy to follow heritage trail that you can enjoy. Head over to Glasgow City Council for the full list of walking trails as PDFs, and download the Glasgow Walking App on iOS and Android too.

Sejarah Lokal

Glasgow has a rich and diverse local history, shaped by ship building, railways, landscaped gardens, allotments, archaeology, architecture, immigration and more. The history is all around the city and Glaswegians are proud of their diverse history, giving them a sense of pride and identity in their city.

You can explore the city's history through collections of photographs, archives and maps held in the Mitchell Library, find out about how Glaswegians lived in the past by exploring everyday objects and exhibitions held in the city's many Museums and Art Galleries including specifically The People's Palace Museum.

Why not get out and about and join one of the many Heritage Trails and tours around the city or discover the stories behind the many sculptures, plaques and monuments around Glasgow. Celebrate the unique cultural and social history of Glasgow through the cities festivals, exhibitions and events.

Many areas within Glasgow have their own conservation groups, links to these can be found on the Local History Links page. One of particular interest is the Old Glasgow Club, a group set up in the city in 1900 to allow members to discuss and disseminate information on the city and its history.

There are also other smaller local museums in Glasgow as well - these often have a specific focus such as the Glasgow Police Museum and The National Piping Centre.

The Irish and Highland famine Memorial Exhibition

Glasgow City Council has created a memorial garden within Glasgow Green, as a place of peace, reflection and remembrance, commemorating those who sought refuge in Glasgow at the time of the Irish and Highland Famine. The garden design reflects the ideas contributed by young people and communities across the City: pathways symbolising journeys the use of traditional stone to reflect the native rural landscapes of the refugees and ships, used to carry people to and from Glasgow. An accompanying exhibition, whose display panels are shown below, further explores the issues and events surrounding this period in our history.

Historic Landscapes

The name Glasgow is thought to derive from the Brythonic Celtic “Cleschi” meaning “Dear Green Place”. The city is located on the broad valley floor of the River Clyde. There are hills to the north, north-west and south which provide a backdrop and interesting views.

The River Clyde bisects the city from east to west. Its tributary the River Kelvin is locally important in the north – west as is the White Cart in the south-west. The topography is generally low lying except where there are drumlins. These small hills, of which there are approximately 180, were formed as a result of glacial activity.

Many have been built on and, not surprisingly, they form many of the city’s landmarks. Garnethill, Park Circus, Partickhill, and Blythswood are important examples north of the river as are Queen’s Park and Mount Florida to the south. The drumlins have a significantly influenced the alignment of roads and railways.

The city originally grew from an ecclesiastic settlement on the banks of the Molendinar Burn spreading down the High St towards the River Clyde.

As Glasgow grew rapidly during the Industrial Revolution, this resulted in high density living environments which took their toll on the health of the city’s inhabitants. As a result the city fathers and wealthy residents focused their attention on City improvements. Extensive parks and boulevards were laid out and public squares and communal gardens were incorporated in redevelopment and expansion schemes. Private gardens and institutional grounds were extensively landscaped and focal points and sculptural features were located throughout the city. The majority of the mature trees within the city were planted during this era.

The city’s historic Landscape also encompasses several large Necropolises, the rural setting on the urban fringe which includes the Antonine Wall running along the city’s northern boundary several historic sports grounds such as Hampden, Ibrox and Parkhead and also the Forth and Clyde Canal.

Trees and woodlands form an important part of the city’s historic landscape. The trees have born witness to a large number of significant events within the city’s history. If you want to know more, Fossil Grove is an example of the survival of some of Glasgow's ancient trees in fossil form.

Glasgow's Geological Landscape is diverse and mining for substances such as coal, iron and lead was widespread in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Collieries included Cardowan Colliery, formerly in Stepps.

Glasgow's landscapes have impacted on the city's history and vice versa. Many of these diverse environments can be enjoyed all year round by following many of Glasgow's Heritage Trails and alternative routes including many that acknowledge the city's natural heritage.

Govan

From the dark ages Govan has been an important place situated next to the River Clyde. Its history is complex and intriguing from very early times, from the Govan Sarcophacus and Hogbacks now situated within Govan Old Parish Church, to its relationship with Doomsterhill and Partick’s royal burgh.

The ecclesiastical history of Govan dates back to the early monastery founded by Constantine around 565 AD. It was not until around 1147 that the name of Govan was historically recorded when King David 1 gave to the Church of Glasgu, "Guven" with its 'marches free and clear for ever'. It was during this period that the church in Govan was made a prebend of Glasgow Cathedral in or around 1153.

In the middle ages Govan was primarily an agricultural village, but as drift coal mining in the 16th century became more prominent in the Craigton and Drumoyne areas, Govan's flourishing industries grew. By the 18th century Govan was known for its handloom weaving industry along with its associated skills of bleaching, dying and spinning village. The Govan Weavers Society was formed in 1756 as a guild of master weavers, holding their annual parade in June which today is known as Govan Fair Day.

In 1759, the Clyde Navigation Act was passed due to the increase in trade with the Americas, and the task of deepening the river began. Glasgow’s merchants realised that there was a desperate need to get ships further up the shallow River Clyde. Exploiting the natural resources of the river, Govan grew steadily from then on.

By the 1790’s the agricultural and then the industrial revolution began, having a profound effect on Govan. The population grew from 2,500 in the early 19th century to over 90,000 one hundred years later. The reasons for this were shipbuilding and immigration from the highlands of Scotland and Ireland, looking for work in the shipyards. In 1841, Robert Napier laid out his shipyard and the first of the Cunarders was launched. In 1864, in recognition of its importance as a centre of commerce and industry, Govan, was granted Burgh status and became the fifth largest Burgh in Scotland.

Changing economic conditions after 1945 led to a dramatic decline in the shipbuilding industry. Many of the yards were forced to close and today only one remains operative - the yard that was formerly Fairfield's. The influence of Govan's shipbuilding industry is a profound one that is still felt today. All around Govan today you may see the remains of the built heritage, the legacy of the yard owners, and the yards and docks themselves- visible reminders of the burgh's great industrial heritage. This is especially evident within Elder Park, with its library, Lady Elder's Statue and other monuments.

Sejarah keluarga

Recently there has been much interest in family history from those living in Glasgow or from those who have had roots in the past within Glasgow.

Family history is not just about trying to find the names of your ancestors, but about understanding the world in which they lived. Whether your family have come from humble beginnings or had an affluent background, there is a wealth of information you can find to gather a picture together of how your ancestors lived.

In the 19th and 20th centuries Glasgow’s population grew due to the highland clearances, industrialisation and the Irish potato famine. Within a short period of time overcrowding within Glasgow’s housing became an increasing problem for the City Fathers, conditions were documented by Thomas Annan’s photographic work. For the majority, immigration to a new country was seen as an opportunity and an alternative to living in slum conditions. Many people wanted a better life for themselves and their families and were encouraged to take the perilous passage by ship to America, Canada and Australia in search of a better life.

You can find Census records, Parish Records, Poor Law Records and Burial Records which can all be accessed to find birth, death and marriage records. Archives can be accessed to find information on buildings, work places, newspapers, maps etc. A good place to start your research is the Glasgow Genealogy Centre.

Family history information within Glasgow can be accessed at the Mitchell Library. They provide a one stop shop for anyone looking for their ancestors within the Glasgow area. Their new website provides information from registers of birth, death and marriage, census records from 1841, images of Glasgow and lots more.

The Virtual Mitchell and Glasgow Museums Photographic Library can provide images of people and places in Glasgow. Thomas Annan’s Images can give you an insight into how working class Glaswegians lived before the 1866 Improvements Act and Scottish screen can also provide you with film of everday life in Glasgow.

River and our city

The River Clyde has always played a hugely important role for the city of Glasgow and its surrounds. It has offered its changing residents water, a means of transport and access to the city and a platform for trade and industry. As the well known saying goes- 'Glasgow made the Clyde and the Clyde made Glasgow.'

Evidence of pre-historic fishing communities exists with Stone Age canoes having been unearthed along the banks of the river. Later it is believed that Celtic Druids traded with the Romans who travelled to and from Glasgow using the Clyde. In the sixth century St. Mungo, Glasgow's patron saint, established his church on a tributary of the Clyde.

Glasgow's situation on the Clyde led to the city becoming a hub of trade and later shipbuilding. By the seventeenth century trade in things such as tobacco took place although the accessibility of the city to larger vessels was restricted by the shallow depth of the river in parts. Deepened in the early nineteenth century, the Clyde then enabled Glasgow to be known as 'the second city of The Empire' with international trade vastly increasing.

The Clyde's importance to Glasgow changed in the twentieth century from facilitating trade to becoming home to the shipbuilding industry in Scotland. Although shipbuilding has declined in recent years, it still exists and the banks of the river have been redeveloped with an additional residential and commercial character.

World heritage

"Scotland has a unique contribution to make to UNESCO’s vision of building peace, eradicating poverty and promoting sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and communication." UNESCO

The UK National Commission for UNESCO highlights and supports sites that are of great importance to world heritage. Scotland's history is diverse and as such there are five sites that are recognised and supported by UNESCO. These are The Heart of Neolithic Orkney, St. Kilda, the Antonine Wall, New Lanark, the Forth Bridge, and Edinburgh's Old and New Towns. There are also several bids for proposed new UNESCO sites in Scotland at present.

Accessible Glasgow

For a practical itinerary to enjoy an accessible and historic day in Glasgow, see the itinerary created by Euan's Guide - a disabled access review website featuring reviews by disabled people, their families and friends.


Scottish History

The SSPCK has been described as “the single most important institution of Anglicisation in the 1700s”. The Edinburgh-based charitable organisation (f. 1709) maintained charity schools in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, intended to evangelise and educate the largely Gaelic- speaking population. As the SSPCK resolved that children would be taught to read only the English Bible and, from 1716, it began advertising its progress towards “extirpating the Irish tongue”, most historiography highlights the SSPCK’s role “in devaluing Gaelic in the Highland mind”.

This article re-evaluates the Society’s language policy both in terms of motivation and impact. It is argued that the established scholarship relies heavily on Society rhetoric — e.g. stereotypes of Highland ignorance/barbarity — thus obscuring the factors which gave rise to the SSPCK’s language policy and the ways in which Highland communities understood the purpose of schooling. It is argued that the SSPCK was initially open to teaching Gaelic in schools, but very few Gaels could read or write the language. After 1715, the SSPCK presented itself as a strictly anti-Gaelic agency, but made little progress in removing Gaelic. It is argued that schooling was more widespread in the Highlands pre-1709 than is generally acknowledged, and that many communities already regarded English as the language of literacy and education. This paper concludes that many communities desired an English education, and would likely have questioned the purpose of Gaelic literacy, not due to a ‘devalued’ opinion of Gaelic, but its continued functionality as a spoken language, complimented by English literacy.

The traditional view of late-medieval Gaelic Scotland is one of relentless inter-clan feuding, an interminably violent period punctuated only by even more horrendous atrocities committed against warrior and civilian alike. Arguably the most infamous instance of bloodshed is the massacre of Eigg in 1577, where allegedly, 395 men, women and children of the Clanranald were suffocated in a cave by MacLeod raiders.

The incident is attested in a sole source from the late sixteenth century, yet it attained significant notoriety in the eighteenth century, when the 'Massacre Cave' became a ghoulishly popular tourist attraction for travellers to the Western Isles. Among others, Johnson & Boswell, Sir Walter Scott and Hugh Miller visited the island, and all indulged in lurid retellings of the event. The locals of Eigg had their own equally embellished version of the story.

For many centuries, the human remains in the cave were deemed ‘proof enough’ of the massacre’s veracity, but the proposed paper will probe beneath the hysteria and analyse the contemporary political situation of 1577. As will be shown, this featured a genuine feud between the Clanranald and the MacLeods of Harris, which will serve as a valuable case study on the themes of warfare, succession and inter-clan politics in the sixteenth century. The over-arching methodology of this paper will be objective assessment, without seeking to prove or disprove, condemn or exonerate.

The personal views of King James VI towards the Highlands and Islands of Scotland preserved within Basilikon Doron have long overshadowed royal government policy towards the Gàidhealtachd during his reign. There is a tendency to read all government interactions with the region from the vantage point of his 1599 treatise, in which mainland Gaels are described as ‘barbarous for the most part, and yet mixed with some shewe of civilitie’, while the Gaels of the islands are ‘alluterly barbares’. Few have recognised that these unkind words were the culmination of fourteen years of personal rule, rather than foundational statements expressed by a young king come of age in 1585.

This paper focuses on the final years of the Irish mercenary trade in the Western Isles in 1594-5, assessing the dynamics between James and his Gaelic magnates some four years before Basilikon Doron was written. Preventing the seasonal flow of ‘redshanks’ or Scottish Gaelic mercenaries into Ulster became a matter of urgency for the Elizabethan government in the waning years of the sixteenth century as the conquest of Ireland was hindered by resurgent resistance. From 1594 onward, the English queen put increasing pressure on the Scottish king to deploy Gilleasbuig Campbell, Earl of Argyll, to ‘stay’ these mercenaries. Relations between Argyll and the king were consistently strained, yet James relied heavily upon the Campbell chief to control the island clans. The king’s inability to prevent the sailing of the redshanks was a potential source of embarrassment as he aimed to prove his worthiness to succeed Elizabeth to the throne of England.

This case study of clan and court politics provides fresh insight into James’ interactions with Scottish Gaeldom beyond the confines of the well-trodden ground of Basilikon Doron.


Sugar Machines: How Archives in Glasgow hold pieces of Caribbean History

On 20 May, in response to the #MuseumsUnlocked discussion, Twitter user @j4lebi asked:

It strikes me that conversations tend to centre around “loot”. These are, of course, crucial – but I would like us to have more critical conversations re: items taken “legitimately” in colonial contexts.[1]

Last year, at the University of Glasgow archives, we were trying to address this question (though we didn’t know it at the time). In late June 2019, a group of archivists, historians, biologists and engineers were taking a close look at the records of Mirrlees Watson & Co Ltd, a 19 th century sugar machinery manufacturer based in Glasgow.[2] Our colleagues from the University of the West Indies, archivists Sharon Alexander-Gooding and Sonia Black, were part of the group and introduced exactly this question. People resident in the UK benefit from easy and free access to a wealth of materials, which were generated by the deeply exploitative, and unequal administration of colonial rule, conduct of trade, and exchange of knowledge. How can this be overcome? As the current pandemic and lockdown exacerbates existing inequalities, the question becomes more urgent. Access, control, security: all unevenly and unfairly distributed – what next steps can we take to redress the balance for the future?

Senior archivist at the University of Glasgow, Moira Rankin, selected a particular archival collection for the group to discuss. The records are made up of two parts: the ledgers and account-books of a thriving business and the enormous and detailed sketches of machinery parts. We looked at a sample of both.

Technical drawing of a feed and retention valve, 1870
University of Glasgow Archives, Mirrlees Watson Co Ltd Archive, UGD202/3406

“Where are the people?”

The first thing you notice about the drawings is the language of human anatomy and food which recurs throughout. The machines have “mouths” which are filled by “feeders”. Discussion was sober, as we thought about the hands and mouths these machines were deployed to replace. It is no coincidence that the company started business in the wake of the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. Founded in 1840, just two years after the end of the apprenticeship scheme which held enslaved people in continued bondage in the British Caribbean, the machines made in Glasgow provided a new source of free labour for sugar plantation owners keen to preserve their profit margins.[3]

These records of orders for parts also brought to mind the people who maintained and repaired the machines. Which people, now legally emancipated from enslavement, remained on the plantations to repair and maintain the machines who took over from their fellow workers? The group reflected on the dehumanization of the records, and how this mirrored the depopulation of the plantation as the people whose work had nurtured the land were pushed to the margins.[4]

“That is where the Prime Minister lives”

The geography of the records reveals the diverse history of the Caribbean. One of the records, selected by Sharon Alexander-Gooding to be part of the Call and Response Exhibition, shows a drawing of a boiler part sent from the Vale Royal Estate, signed by an HS.[5] Vale Royal Estate, formerly known as “Prospect Pen” in Kingston, Jamaica, is now the official residence of the Prime Minister of Jamaica, wince the government took it over from the British colonial governor.[6] The residence was once at the centre of a forced labour camp where enslaved people were forced to grow and process sugar. In 1833, its owner Simon Taylor received reparations, for the freedom of the people he enslaved. It then became a sugar plantation after emancipation. HS, whoever they were, drew this detailed schematic on that plantation and sent it off for craft workers in Glasgow to replicate. Stories beyond and after slavery are in that drawing.

The geography of the account-books reflect something else about the post-slavery Caribbean. Mirlees & Tait were not only trading with the post-emancipation colonies, they also sent sugar machines to Cuba, Puerto Rico and Brazil, where slavery was still legal until late in the 19 th century. In Puerto Rico, not only did slave owners receive reparations in 1873, this fund was paid by the emancipated people themselves, who had to buy their freedom.[7] The uneven imposition of slavery and emancipation across the Caribbean demands that researchers in these kinds of archival holdings pay more attention to the diversity of the region. The Caribbean is not a country, as we could paraphrase from Africa.

“What is discarded?”

This is a question for both the archivists and the environmental scientist. Tateh Champion, PhD Student, and Ayo Ogundero, both graduate students instigated this thoughtful discussion. It is clear what has been wilfully discarded and destroyed along the way by powerful historical forces, the individual experiences and lives of enslaved people the hopes and ambitions of those newly-emancipated the craft and care that went into making houses and homes that have been left undocumented, on the edges of land that has been pilfered. But these records also raised the question of the detritus of the plantation. How has it reshaped the land and the landscape? Machines from Mirrlees and Tait are scattered in fields and ditches.[8] How is the soil? What can (and can’t) it grow now? A metaphor for the archives suggests itself in the comparison between the exhausted and depleted dirt of the plantation and the papers and accounts of the colonial archive. What does “decolonising the archives” mean when we are working with the documentary manifestations of the shockwaves of slavery, imperialism and exploitation?

Drawing of a bung hole borer 1862
University of Glasgow Archives, Mirrlees Watson Co Ltd Archive, UGD202/1939)

[2] We used the “Global History Hackathon” playbook developed by Hannah-Louise Clark and others to bring together an interdisciplinary group who had no previous particular expertise or knowledge of this collection to generate ideas for research projects and collaborations. The event was attended by: Moira Rankin, ASC, Sharon Alexander-Gooding, UWI Archives, Sonia Black, UWI Archives, Christine Whyte, College of Arts, Tateh Champion, PhD Student, MVLS, Ayo Ogundero, PhD Student, Engineering, Jules Koch, Archives MSc student, Louise Redhead, Archives, Sarah Gambell, Information Studies. This blog was written by Christine Whyte, who offers heartfelt thanks to the participants and others who have engaged in these discussions – apologies for any omissions and errors, they are entirely mine.

[3] John E. Crowley, ‘Sugar Machines: Picturing Industrialized Slavery’, Ulasan Sejarah Amerika, Volume 121, Issue 2, April 2016, Pages 403–436, https://doi.org/10.1093/ahr/121.2.403

[4] Geoff Palmer talks about how his family bought land at the edges of the plantation on which their ancestors were enslaved.

[7] Christopher Schmidt‐Nowara (2000) The end of slavery and the end of empire: Slave emancipation in Cuba and Puerto Rico, Slavery & Abolition, 21:2, 188-207, DOI: 10.1080/01440390008575312


The James Ireland Memorial Library – who was James Ireland?

Written by Christine Leitch and David Stevenson James Ireland (1915-1997) came to Glasgow in 1949 as senior lecturer and honorary consultant in charge of the Department of Conservative Dentistry. On arrival one of his first questions was “Where is the… Read More &rsaquo


Universitas Glasgow

The University of Glasgow (Scottish Gaelic: Oilthigh Ghlaschu, Latin: Universitas Glasguensis) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. The university was founded in 1451 and is often ranked in the world's top 100 universities in tables compiled by various bodies.[4][5] In 2013, Glasgow moved to its highest ever position, placing 51st in the world and 9th in the UK in the QS World University Rankings.[6]

In common with universities of the pre-modern era, Glasgow educated students primarily from wealthy backgrounds, but was also, with the University of Edinburgh, a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment during the 18th century. The University became a pioneer in British higher education in the 19th century by also providing for the needs of students from the growing urban and commercial middle classes. Glasgow served all of these students by preparing them for professions: the law, medicine, civil service, teaching, and the church. It also trained smaller but growing numbers for careers in science and engineering.[7] In 2007, the Sunday Times ranked it as "Scottish University of the Year."[8] The university is a member of the Russell Group which represents the highest-ranked public research-based universities in the UK. It is also a member of Universitas 21, the international network of research universities.

Originally located in the city's High Street, since 1870 the main University campus has been located at Gilmorehill in the West End of the city.[9] Additionally, a number of university buildings are located elsewhere, such as the University Marine Biological Station Millport on the Island of Cumbrae in the Firth of Clyde and the Crichton Campus in Dumfries.

Glasgow has departments of Law, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, and Dentistry. Its submission to the most recent UK university research assessment was one of the broadest in the UK.[10] Glasgow's financial endowment is the fifth largest (and fourth largest per head) among UK universities.

Alumni or former staff of the University include philosopher Francis Hutcheson, engineer James Watt, economist Adam Smith, physicist Lord Kelvin, surgeon Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, seven Nobel laureates, two British Prime Ministers, several leaders of Britain's and Scotland's major political parties, and numerous leading figures from legal, scientific and business professions. Entry to the university is highly competitive applications for each place on many of its courses run into double figures, and successful entrants have on average almost 485 UCAS points. This ranks as the 11th highest among UK higher education institutions ("Entry Standards" – CUG University League Table 2015).[11]The University of Glasgow was founded in 1451 AD by a charter or papal bull from Pope Nicholas V, at the suggestion of King James II, giving Bishop William Turnbull permission to add a University to the city's Cathedral.[12] It is the second-oldest university in Scotland after St Andrews and the fourth-oldest in the English-speaking world. The universities of St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen were ecclesiastical foundations, while Edinburgh was a civic foundation. As one of the Ancient Universities of the United Kingdom, Glasgow University is one of only eight institutions to award undergraduate masters degrees in certain disciplines.

The East Quadrangle of the Main Building. The University has been without its original Bull since the mid-sixteenth century. In 1560, during the political unrest accompanying the Scottish Reformation, the then chancellor, Archbishop James Beaton, a supporter of the Marian cause, fled to France. He took with him, for safe-keeping, many of the archives and valuables of the Cathedral and the University, including the Mace and the Bull. Although the Mace was sent back in 1590, the archives were not. Principal Dr James Fall told the Parliamentary Commissioners of Visitation on 28 August 1690, that he had seen the Bull at the Scots College in Paris, together with the many charters granted to the University by the monarchs of Scotland from James II to Mary, Queen of Scots. The University enquired of these documents in 1738 but was informed by Thomas Innes and the superiors of the Scots College, that the original records of the foundation of the University were not to be found. If they had not been lost by this time, they certainly went astray during the French Revolution when the Scots College was under threat. Its records and valuables were moved for safe-keeping out of the city of Paris. The Bull remains the authority by which the University awards degrees.

Teaching at the University began in the chapterhouse of Glasgow Cathedral, subsequently moving to nearby Rottenrow, in a building known as the "Auld Pedagogy". The University was given 13 acres (53,000 m2) of land belonging to the Black Friars (Dominicans) on High Street by Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1563.[13] By the late 17th century, the University building centred on two courtyards surrounded by walled gardens, with a clock tower, which was one of the notable features of Glasgow's skyline, and a chapel adapted from the church of the former Dominican (Blackfriars) friary. Remnants of this Scottish Renaissance building, mainly parts of the main facade, were transferred to the Gilmorehill campus and renamed as the "Pearce Lodge", after Sir William Pearce, the shipbuilding magnate who funded its preservation. The Lion and Unicorn Staircase was also transferred from the old college site and is now attached to the Main Building.

John Anderson, while professor of natural philosophy at the university, and with some opposition from his colleagues, pioneered vocational education for working men and women during the industrial revolution. To continue this work in his will he founded Anderson's College, which was associated with the university before merging with other institutions to become the University of Strathclyde in 1964.

In 1973, Delphine Parrott became its first woman professor, as Gardiner Professor of Immunology.[14]

In October 2014, the university court voted for the University to become the first academic institution in Europe to divest from the fossil fuel industry.


Tonton videonya: 10 Universitas Terbaik Dunia!! Isinya Mahasiswa Jenius Semua (November 2022).

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